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AIM   Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types. Although miRNAs have emerged as key regulators in the cellular process, a few studies have been reported about behaviors of miRNAs during differentiation of hESCs into a specialized cell type. Here, we demonstrate that different kinds of miRNAs(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis, which coordinates metabolic pathways and thus balances nutrient supply with energy demand. Because of the favorable physiological outcomes of AMPK activation on metabolism, AMPK has been considered to be an important therapeutic target for controlling human diseases including(More)
The Langmuir–Blodgett technique has been applied to build optically homogeneous thin films of chemically solubilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) which possess good surface spreading properties at the air/water interface. Deposition can be performed in a layer-by-layer fashion up to 100 or more layers either by horizontal lifting or vertical(More)
Flavonoids are ubiquitously present in plants and play important roles in these organisms as well as in the human diet. Flavonol synthase (FLS) is a key enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, acting at the diverging point into the flavonol subclass branch. We isolated and characterized a FLS isoform gene, FtFLS2, from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are spherical membrane-bound vesicles with nano-scale diameters, which are shed to the extracellular region by most eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Bacterial EV are proposed to contribute to intercellular communication, bacterial survival and human pathogenesis as a novel secretion system. EV have been characterized from many(More)
Metagenomic studies show that diverse resident viruses inhabit the healthy gut; however, little is known about the role of these viruses in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. We found that mice treated with antiviral cocktail displayed more severe dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis compared with untreated mice. DSS-induced colitis was associated(More)
Resilin has emerged as a promising new biomaterial possessing attractive properties for tissue engineering applications. To date, proteins with repeating resilin motifs have been expressed with molecular weights less than 30 kDa. This work describes the development of resilin-based proteins (repeating motif derived from Anopheles gambiae) 50 kDa in size. A(More)
BACKGROUND Insampaedok-san (ren-shen-bai-du-san in Chinese) is a traditional herbal formula widely used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in Korea and China. In this study, we investigated the acute oral toxicity of an Insampaedok-san water extract (ISSE) in rats and the antiasthmatic effects of ISSE and its mechanism in a model of asthma induced by(More)
BACKGROUND Gamisoyo-san (GMSYS) is a traditional herbal formula used to treat insomnia, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and action mechanisms of GMSYS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. METHODS The anti-inflammatory effects of GMSYS were(More)
This study was aimed to characterize the structural and physico-mechanical properties of bio-cellulose produced through cell-free system. Fourier transform-infrared spectrum illustrated exact matching of structural peaks with microbial cellulose, used as reference. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that fibrils of bio-cellulose were(More)