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BACKGROUND In March 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis and pneumonia occurred in workers at an abattoir in Singapore. We describe the clinical presentation and the results of investigations in these patients. METHODS Clinical and laboratory data were collected by systemic review of the case records. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested(More)
BACKGROUND Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces arthralgia. The involvement of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines has been suggested, but very little is known about their secretion profile in CHIKV-infected patients. METHODS A case-control longitudinal study was performed that involved 30 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Chikungunya(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue is re-emerging throughout the tropical world, causing frequent recurrent epidemics. The initial clinical manifestation of dengue often is confused with other febrile states confounding both clinical management and disease surveillance. Evidence-based triage strategies that identify individuals likely to be in the early stages of dengue(More)
BACKGROUND The United States FDA approved an over-the-counter HIV self-test, to facilitate increased HIV testing and earlier linkage to care. We assessed the accuracy of self-testing by untrained participants compared to healthcare worker (HCW) testing, participants' ability to interpret sample results and user-acceptability of self-tests in Singapore. (More)
OBJECTIVES To develop a simple decision tree for clinicians to decide between hospitalization and outpatient monitoring of adult dengue patients. METHOD Retrospective cohort study on all laboratory-diagnosed dengue patients admitted in 2004 to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were collected, and(More)
CONTEXT An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), an infectious disease attributed to a novel coronavirus, occurred in Singapore during the first quarter of 2003 and led to 204 patients with diagnosed illnesses and 26 deaths by May 2, 2003. Twenty-one percent of these patients required admission to the medical intensive care unit. During this(More)
We report a case of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi in Singapore, a malaria-free country. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with validated species-specific primers. In industrialized countries, free-ranging primates are a potential source of P. knowlesi human infection. P. knowlesi infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile illness acquired in(More)
INTRODUCTION Dengue is a major public health problem in Singapore. Age-specific dengue morbidity rates are highest in the young adult population, unlike in many other Southeast Asian countries where dengue is mainly a paediatric disease. Hence, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on dengue diagnosis and management which were developed using the(More)
BACKGROUND In Singapore, the first local outbreak of chikungunya was reported in January 2008, followed by a larger outbreak occurred in August 2008. During the initial outbreak period, a strict containment strategy was adopted and all chikungunya PCR-confirmed cases were isolated and hospitalised at the designated national outbreak management centre. (More)
A new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-CoV]) has been identified to be the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Given the highly contagious and acute nature of the disease, there is an urgent need for the development of diagnostic assays that can detect SARS-CoV infection. For determination of which of the(More)