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BACKGROUND In March 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis and pneumonia occurred in workers at an abattoir in Singapore. We describe the clinical presentation and the results of investigations in these patients. METHODS Clinical and laboratory data were collected by systemic review of the case records. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging viral infectious disease. One of the largest outbreaks of SARS to date began in Singapore in March 2003. We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of the index patient and the patient's initial contacts affected with probable SARS.
BACKGROUND Dengue and chikungunya are co-circulating vector-borne diseases with substantial overlap in clinical presentations. It is important to differentiate between them during first presentation as their management, especially for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), is different. This study compares their clinical presentation in Singapore adults to derive(More)
WHO recommendations for dengue diagnosis require laboratory facilities. Antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have performed poorly, and clinical diagnosis remains the mainstay in dengue-endemic countries. We evaluated a combination antigen-antibody RDT for point-of-care testing in a high-prevalence setting. In this prospective cohort study, adults(More)
Between 1 and 22 March 2003, a nosocomial outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) occurred at the Communicable Disease Centre in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, the national treatment and isolation facility for patients with SARS. A case-control study with 36 cases and 50 controls was conducted of factors associated with the transmission of(More)
OBJECTIVES HIV-1 viral quantitation is essential for treatment monitoring. An in-house assay would decrease financial barriers to access. MATERIALS AND METHODS A real-time competitive RT-PCR in house assay (Sing-IH) was developed in Singapore. Using HXB2 as reference, the assay's primers and probes were designed to generate a 183-bp product that overlaps(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and related arboviruses have been responsible for large epidemic outbreaks with serious economic and social impact. The immune mechanisms, which control viral multiplication and dissemination, are not yet known. Here, we studied the antibody response against the CHIKV surface antigens in infected patients. With plasma samples(More)
We report a case of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi in Singapore, a malaria-free country. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with validated species-specific primers. In industrialized countries, free-ranging primates are a potential source of P. knowlesi human infection. P. knowlesi infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile illness acquired in(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue is re-emerging throughout the tropical world, causing frequent recurrent epidemics. The initial clinical manifestation of dengue often is confused with other febrile states confounding both clinical management and disease surveillance. Evidence-based triage strategies that identify individuals likely to be in the early stages of dengue(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the immunopathogenesis of Chikungunya virus. Circulating levels of immune mediators and growth factors were analyzed from patients infected during the first Singaporean Chikungunya fever outbreak in early 2008 to establish biomarkers associated with infection and/or disease severity. METHODS AND FINDINGS Adult patients(More)