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We report a case of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi in Singapore, a malaria-free country. Diagnosis was confirmed by PCR with validated species-specific primers. In industrialized countries, free-ranging primates are a potential source of P. knowlesi human infection. P. knowlesi infection is a differential diagnosis of febrile illness acquired in(More)
BACKGROUND Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces arthralgia. The involvement of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines has been suggested, but very little is known about their secretion profile in CHIKV-infected patients. METHODS A case-control longitudinal study was performed that involved 30 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Chikungunya(More)
INTRODUCTION Dengue is a major public health problem in Singapore. Age-specific dengue morbidity rates are highest in the young adult population, unlike in many other Southeast Asian countries where dengue is mainly a paediatric disease. Hence, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on dengue diagnosis and management which were developed using the(More)
BACKGROUND In March 1999, an outbreak of encephalitis and pneumonia occurred in workers at an abattoir in Singapore. We describe the clinical presentation and the results of investigations in these patients. METHODS Clinical and laboratory data were collected by systemic review of the case records. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested(More)
CONTEXT Singapore experienced a single epidemic wave of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) with epidemic activity starting in late June 2009 and peaking in early August before subsiding within a month. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk and factors associated with H1N1 seroconversion in different adult cohorts. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A study with serial(More)
BACKGROUND The United States FDA approved an over-the-counter HIV self-test, to facilitate increased HIV testing and earlier linkage to care. We assessed the accuracy of self-testing by untrained participants compared to healthcare worker (HCW) testing, participants' ability to interpret sample results and user-acceptability of self-tests in Singapore. (More)
OBJECTIVE Because HIV rapid tests are considered for self-testing, this study aims to determine the user acceptability and feasibility of self-testing. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed on 350 systematically sampled participants across 2 Singapore HIV testing centers using the Abbott Determine HIV 1/2 blood sample rapid test (Abbott(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the immunopathogenesis of Chikungunya virus. Circulating levels of immune mediators and growth factors were analyzed from patients infected during the first Singaporean Chikungunya fever outbreak in early 2008 to establish biomarkers associated with infection and/or disease severity. METHODS AND FINDINGS Adult patients(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects 2.5 billion people worldwide. There are four dengue serotypes (DENV1 to DENV4), and infection with one elicits lifelong immunity to that serotype but offers only transient protection against the other serotypes. Identification of the protective determinants of the human antibody response to(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe form of dengue, characterized by bleeding and plasma leakage. A number of DHF risk factors had been suggested. However, these risk factors may not be generalized to all populations and epidemics for screening and clinical management of patients at risk of developing DHF. This study explored demographic(More)