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Penetration by an object through a dense granular medium (for example, by a finger pushing slowly into the sand on a beach) presents an interesting physics problem that is closely related to issues of practical importance in soil science. Here we measure the penetration-resistance force for an object approaching the solid bottom boundary of a granular(More)
Two-dimensional (2D) systems with continuous symmetry lack conventional long-range order because of thermal fluctuations. Instead, as pointed out by Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless (BKT), 2D systems may exhibit so-called topological order driven by the binding of vortex-antivortex pairs. Signatures of the BKT mechanism have been observed in thin films,(More)
A finite element approach is used to predict stress and deformation states of uterine muscle tissue under plane strain indentation by a flexible shield. Realistic, one-dimensional "punch" elements at the shield edges assure that muscle shear stresses remain bounded within experimentally measured values. For typical tissue, bearing pressure, deformation flow(More)
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