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Karrikins and strigolactones (SL) are two classes of butenolide compounds that control many aspects of plant physiology. Karrikins, originally found in the smoke of forest fires, have the ability to stimulate seed germination [1]. SL are endogenous plant hormones that mediate responses to low levels of soil nutrients, such as phosphate and nitrate [2]. They(More)
ErbB4, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, plays crucial roles in cell growth and differentiation, especially in the development of the heart and nervous system. Ligand binding to its extracellular region could modulate the activation process. To understand the mechanism of ErbB4 activation induced by ligand binding, we performed one microsecond(More)
The high aromatic content of the deep and narrow active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a remarkable feature of this enzyme. Here, we analyze conformational flexibility of the side chains of the 14 conserved aromatic residues in the active-site gorge of Torpedo californica AChE based on the 47 three-dimensional crystal structures available for(More)
The SARS coronavirus main proteinase (M(pro)) is a key enzyme in the processing of the viral polyproteins and thus an attractive target for the discovery of drugs directed against SARS. The enzyme has been shown by X-ray crystallography to undergo significant pH-dependent conformational changes. Here, we assess the conformational flexibility of the M(pro)(More)
The transient opening of a backdoor in the active-site wall of acetylcholinesterase, one of nature's most rapid enzymes, has been suggested to contribute to the efficient traffic of substrates and products. A crystal structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase in complex with the peripheral-site inhibitor aflatoxin is now presented, in which a(More)
HSP90 is ubiquitously overexpressed in a broad spectrum of human cancers and has been recognized as an attractive target for cancer treatment. Here, we described the fragment screening, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of small molecule inhibitors with 4,5-diarylisoxazole scaffold targeting HSP90. Among them, the compound(More)
The amyloid beta-peptides (Abetas), containing 39-43 residues, are the key protein components of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease. To structurally characterize the dynamic behavior of Abeta(40), 12 independent long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a total of 850 ns were performed on both the wide-type peptide and its mutant in both(More)
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a key molecule involved in the propagation of signals in the central nervous system and peripheral synapses. Although numerous computational and experimental studies have been performed on this receptor, the structural dynamics of the receptor underlying the gating mechanism is still unclear. To address the(More)
Crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase complexed with ligands are compared with side-chain conformations accessed by native acetylcholinesterase in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Several crystallographic conformations of a key residue in a specific binding site are accessed in a simulation of native acetylcholinesterase, although not seen in(More)
The entering and leaving processes of Huperzine A (HupA) binding with the long active-site gorge of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) have been investigated by using steered molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of the force required along the pathway shows that it is easier for HupA to bind to the active site of AChE than to(More)