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Autophagy is the primary cellular catabolic program activated in response to nutrient starvation. Initiation of autophagy, particularly by amino-acid withdrawal, requires the ULK kinases. Despite its pivotal role in autophagy initiation, little is known about the mechanisms by which ULK promotes autophagy. Here we describe a molecular mechanism linking ULK(More)
Improving the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in wireless Internet protocol (IP) communications has been an active research area. The performance degradation of TCP in wireless and wired-wireless hybrid networks is mainly due to its lack of the ability to differentiate the packet losses caused by network congestions from the losses(More)
Many analytical and simulation-based studies of TCP performance in wireless environments assume an error-free and congestion-free reverse channel that has the same capacity as the forward channel. Such an assumption does not hold in many real-world scenarios, particularly in the hybrid networks consisting of various wireless LAN (WLAN) and cellular(More)
CXCR1 is one of two high-affinity receptors for the CXC chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), a major mediator of immune and inflammatory responses implicated in many disorders, including tumour growth. IL-8, released in response to inflammatory stimuli, binds to the extracellular side of CXCR1. The ligand-activated intracellular signalling pathways result in(More)
In this paper, a simple mathematical model is presented for studying the performance of the BitTorrent [1] file sharing system. We are especially interested in the distribution of the peers with different states of the download job completedness. With the model we find that in the stable state the distribution of the download peers follows a U-shaped curve,(More)
Previous studies show that more than 85% of the peers have joined multiple torrents in BitTorrent, but theoretical work on multiple files BitTorrent downloading is rare. In this paper, we first consider the scenario of multi-torrent downloading. We present a fluid-model based analysis on the multi-torrent concurrent downloading scheme, which is implicitly(More)
Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense(More)
Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging network paradigm, which realizes the interconnections among the ubiquitous things and is the foundation of smart society. Since IoT are always related to user’s daily life or work, the privacy and security are of great importance. The pervasive, complex and heterogeneous properties of IoT make its security issues very(More)
Void areas (holes) as an inevitable phenomenon exist in geographic routing of wireless sensor networks, because the unpredictable and harsh nature application environment or uneven energy consumption. Most of the existing schemes for the issue tend to construct a static detour path to bypass a hole. The static detour path may lead to uneven energy(More)
Evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be powerful for solving multi-objective optimization problems, where non-dominated sorting is a widely adopted technique in selection. This technique, however, can be computationally expensive, especially when the number of individuals in the population becomes large. This is mainly due to the fact that in most(More)