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INTRODUCTION In patients with autoimmune hepatitis, efficient immunosuppressive therapy is essential to avoid progression to cirrhosis. There is no established second line therapy for patients failing standard therapy with steroids and azathioprine. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as second line(More)
Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are found at sites of chronic inflammation where they mediate bystander and Ag-specific suppression of local immune responses. However, little is known about the molecular control of T(reg) recruitment into inflamed human tissues. We report that up to 18% of T cells in areas of inflammation in human liver disease are forkhead(More)
Currently, no vaccine exists for hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major pathogen thought to infect 170 million people globally. Many studies suggest that host T cell responses are critical for spontaneous resolution of disease, and preclinical studies have indicated a requirement for T cells in protection against challenge. We aimed to elicit HCV-specific T cells(More)
CD8(+) T lymphocytes play a key role in host defense, in particular against important persistent viruses, although the critical functional properties of such cells in tissue are not fully defined. We have previously observed that CD8(+) T cells specific for tissue-localized viruses such as hepatitis C virus express high levels of the C-type lectin CD161. To(More)
INTRODUCTION Alcoholic hepatitis is associated with a high short term mortality. We aimed to identify those factors associated with mortality and define a simple score which would predict outcome in our population. METHODS We identified 241 patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded on the day of admission (day 1) and on(More)
Chemokines direct leukocyte trafficking and positioning within tissues, thus playing critical roles in regulating immune responses and inflammation. The chemokine system is complex, involving interactions between multiple chemokines and their receptors that operate in combinatorial cascades with adhesion molecules. The involvement of multiple chemokines and(More)
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis are the three major autoimmune diseases affecting the liver, and of these three, AIH is the most typical autoimmune disease being characterized by a T-cell-rich infiltrate, raised circulating γ-globulins, autoantibodies, HLA associations, and links with other(More)
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8(+) and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ((++)) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of de novo cancers is increased in liver allograft recipients but there are few data assessing the extent of the increased risk compared with a matched population. METHODS A retrospective study of 1,778 adults transplanted between January 1982 and March 2004, followed for a median of 65 months. The observed cancer incidence was(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Biliary obstruction as a consequence of portal biliopathy, because of extrahepatic portal vein occlusion is an uncommon cause of biliary disease in the western world. We reviewed all patients presenting to the Regional Liver Transplant Unit in Birmingham, UK with symptomatic portal biliopathy between 1992 and 2005 and report the(More)