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The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on 27 November 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after the launch. Since then, much progress has been made in the calibration of the sensors, the improvement of the rainfall algorithms, and applications of these results to areas such as(More)
This paper describes the latest improvements applied to the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF), particularly as they apply to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Most of these improvements, however, are conceptual in nature and apply equally to other passive microwave sensors. The improvements were motivated by a notable overestimation of(More)
A combination of passive microwave and radar observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite is used to investigate the consistency between the two sensors. Rather than relying on some absolute ''truth'' to verify retrievals, this paper focuses on one assumption—namely, the drop size distribution (DSD)—and how different DSDs lead(More)
This paper presents a new scheme that classifies convective and stratiform (C/S) precipitation areas over oceans using microwave brightness temperature. In this scheme, data are first screened to eliminate nonraining pixels. For raining pixels, C/S indices are computed from brightness temperatures and their variability for emission (19 and 37 GHz) and(More)
The one-dimensional, steady-state melting-layer model developed in Part I of this study is used to calculate both the microphysical and radiative properties of melting precipitation, based upon the computed concentrations of snow and graupel just above the freezing level at applicable horizontal grid points of three-dimensional cloud-resolving model(More)
—Two calibration anomalies of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Im-ager Sounder (SSMIS) radiometer are examined by using several sources of data. Early orbit mode data from the SSMIS are used to create radiometric images of the warm calibration load that evolve over an entire orbit to elucidate the effects of(More)
the cal/val program. In particular, the tasks of diagnosing the root cause(s) of these anomalies as well as the development of ground processing software algorithms to mitigate their impact on F-16 SSMIS and hardware fixes on future instruments necessitated the construction of extensive analysis and simulation tools. The lessons learned from the SSMIS(More)
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The environment considered in this research is a massive multiplayer online gaming (MMOG) environment. Each user controls an avatar (an image that represents and is manipulated by a user) in a virtual world and interacts with other users. An important aspect of MMOG is maintaining a fair environment among users (i.e., not give an unfair advantage to users(More)
Web services provide a language-neutral, loosely-coupled, and platform independent way for linking applications within organizations or enterprises across the Internet. In such a scenario, quantitative characteristics such as service execution throughput should be evaluated to measure the system performance. Usually, the first step is to define an abstract(More)