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The biological effects and expected fate of the vast amount of oil in the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon blowout are unknown owing to the depth and magnitude of this event. Here, we report that the dispersed hydrocarbon plume stimulated deep-sea indigenous γ-Proteobacteria that are closely related to known petroleum degraders.(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to investigate cerebral structural connectivity in never-medicated individuals with first-episode schizophrenia. METHOD Subjects with first-episode schizophrenia according to DSM-IV-R who had never been exposed to antipsychotic medication (n=25) and healthy controls (n=26) were recruited. Groups were(More)
BACKGROUND We and others have reported that patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis already have significant structural brain abnormalities. Antipsychotics seem to reverse subcortical volume deficits after months of treatment. However, the early impact of medication on brain morphology is not known. METHOD Forty-eight individuals in their(More)
A new generation of functional gene arrays (FGAs; GeoChip 3.0) has been developed, with approximately 28 000 probes covering approximately 57 000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles, energy metabolism, antibiotic resistance, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. GeoChip(More)
Understanding the responses of biological communities to elevated CO2 (eCO2) is a central issue in ecology, but little is known about the influence of eCO2 on the structure and functioning (and consequent feedbacks to plant productivity) of the belowground microbial community. Here, using metagenomic technologies, we showed that 10 years of field exposure(More)
In managing and troubleshooting home networks, one of the challenges is in knowing what is actually happening. Availability of a record of events that occurred on the home network <i>before</i> trouble appeared would go a long way toward addressing that challenge. In this position/work-in-progress paper, we consider requirements for a general-purpose(More)
Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes are central issues in ecology and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity research focuses on "species" richness and abundance but not on their interactions. Although a network approach is powerful in describing ecological interactions among species, defining the network structure in a microbial(More)
UNLABELLED Understanding the interactions among different species and their responses to environmental changes, such as elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO(2), is a central goal in ecology but is poorly understood in microbial ecology. Here we describe a novel random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework to discern phylogenetic molecular(More)
ABSTRACT The processes and mechanisms of community assembly and its relationships to community functioning are central issues in ecology. Both deterministic and stochastic factors play important roles in shaping community composition and structure, but the connection between community assembly and ecosystem functioning remains elusive, especially in(More)
High-density functional gene arrays have become a powerful tool for environmental microbial detection and characterization. However, microarray data normalization and comparison for this type of microarray remain a challenge in environmental microbiology studies because some commonly used normalization methods (e.g., genomic DNA) for the study of pure(More)