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The temporal relationship between changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) is important in the biophysical modeling and interpretation of the hemodynamic response to activation, particularly in the context of magnetic resonance imaging and the blood oxygen level-dependent signal. measured the steady state relationship between(More)
Noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are attracting increasing interest as potential therapies for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric conditions. When targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anodal, facilitatory tDCS has been shown to improve symptoms in a range of domains(More)
Recent studies have shown that the haemodynamic responses to brief (<2 secs) stimuli can be well characterised as a linear convolution of neural activity with a suitable haemodynamic impulse response. In this paper, we show that the linear convolution model cannot predict measurements of blood flow responses to stimuli of longer duration (>2 secs),(More)
Chronic pain is thought to arise because of maladaptive changes occurring within the peripheral nervous system and CNS. The transition from acute to chronic pain is known to involve the spinal cord (Woolf and Salter, 2000). Therefore, to investigate altered human spinal cord function and translate results obtained from other species, a noninvasive(More)
Severe, recurrent or bilateral optic neuritis (ON) often falls within the neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), but the diagnosis can be particularly challenging and has important treatment implications. We report the features, course and outcomes of patients presenting with atypical ON when isolated at onset. We retrospectively analyzed 69(More)
The spinal cord is the main pathway for information between the central and the peripheral nervous systems. Non-invasive functional MRI offers the possibility of studying spinal cord function and central sensitisation processes. However, imaging neural activity in the spinal cord is more difficult than in the brain. A significant challenge when dealing with(More)
Independent component analysis (ICA) can identify covarying functional networks in the resting brain. Despite its relatively widespread use, the potential of the temporal information (unlike spatial information) obtained by ICA from resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) data is not always fully utilized. In this study, we systematically investigated which features(More)
Variability in opioid analgesia has been attributed to many factors. For example, genetic variability of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-encoding gene introduces variability in MOR function and endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Emerging evidence suggests that personality trait related to the experience of reward is linked to endogenous opioid(More)
Spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of the brain have repeatedly been observed when no task or external stimulation is present. These fluctuations likely reflect baseline neuronal activity of the brain and correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks (RSN). It is not known however, whether(More)
Pain in transverse myelitis has been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between transverse myelitis related pain and disability, quality of life, anxiety and depression, cognitive-affective states in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients and aquaporin4 antibody status (AQP4-Ab +ve as positive and AQP4-Ab -ve as negative).(More)