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AIMS Homeobox (Hox) proteins are transcriptional regulators in embryonic patterning, cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration in vertebrates and invertebrates. A growing body of evidence suggests that Hox proteins are involved in endothelial cell regulation. We have shown earlier that HoxB5 upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(More)
Bmper, which is orthologous to Drosophila melanogaster crossveinless 2, is a secreted factor that regulates Bmp activity in a tissue- and stage-dependent manner. Both pro- and anti-Bmp activities have been postulated for Bmper, although the molecular mechanisms through which Bmper affects Bmp signaling are unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that as(More)
Vascularization of the placenta is a critical developmental process that ensures fetal viability. Although the vascular health of the placenta affects both maternal and fetal well being, relatively little is known about the early stages of placental vascular development. The ubiquitin ligase Ankyrin repeat, SOCS box-containing 4 (ASB4) promotes embryonic(More)
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is generally not curable with current anti-viral drugs. Virus rebounds after stopping treatment from the stable HBV covalently-closed-circular DNA (cccDNA). The development of drugs that directly target cccDNA is hampered by the lack of robust HBV cccDNA models. We report here a novel HBV cccDNA technology that will(More)
Formation of the cardiac valves is an essential component of cardiovascular development. Consistent with the role of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in cardiac valve formation, embryos that are deficient for the BMP regulator BMPER (BMP-binding endothelial regulator) display the cardiac valve anomaly mitral valve prolapse. However,(More)
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