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An analytical technique is described which permits the quantitation of picogram concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene-glycol (MHPG) in acid hydrolyzed extracts of microdissected regions of the rat brain, and this procedure is used to determine if alterations in the activity of noradrenergic neurons are reflected by changes in the(More)
The mechanisms underlying the disruption of glutamate-glutamine cycle (Glu-Gln cycle) in manganism are still unknown. To approach the concrete mechanisms, the rats were i.p. injected with different doses of MnCl(2) (0, 8, 40, and 200 micromol/kg), and the levels of Mn, Glu, and Gln, the morphological and ultrastructural changes, activities of(More)
Raclopride and remoxipride, which are reported to be selective dopamine-D2 antagonists, are currently under clinical investigation as antipsychotic drugs. The present study compared the relative abilities of these two drugs to alter the activity of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, and plasma levels of hormones originating from the anterior(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element for humans. However, manganism would be caused by excessive Mn. The mechanisms underlying excitotoxicity induced by manganism are poorly understood. As it is known to us, glutamate (Glu) is the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter. To determine the possible role of dysfunction of Glu transportation and(More)
The medial zona incerta (MZI) and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMN), which contain cell bodies and terminals of incertohypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurons, are densely innervated by both noradrenergic (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic (5-HT) neurons. In view of emerging anatomical and pharmacological evidence suggesting possible interactions(More)
The activities of periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic (DA) neurons were compared in male and female rats by measuring dopamine synthesis (accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine [DOPA] after inhibition of L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase) and metabolism (concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [DOPAC]) in terminals of these neurons in(More)
The effects of neurotensin on the activity of hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular and periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and on the secretion of pituitary hormones that are tonically regulated by these neurons (i.e. prolactin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [alpha MSH], respectively) were examined in estrogen-primed ovariectomized(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of galanin on the basal and stimulated activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in male and female rats. TIDA neuronal activity was estimated by measuring dopamine (DA) synthesis [accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine(DOPA) after administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor](More)
The purpose of the present study was to characterize opioid receptor-mediated regulation of incertohypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the rat brain by examining the acute effects of selective mu or kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the medial zona incerta (MZI) and the(More)
Chronic exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) can lead to manganism, a type of neurotoxicity accomplished with extracellular glutamate (Glu) accumulation. To investigate this accumulation, this study focused on the role of astrocyte glutamate transporters (GluTs) and glutamine synthetase (GS), which have roles in Glu transport and metabolism, respectively.(More)