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This article traces the history of peer review of scientific publications, plotting the development of the process from its inception to its present-day application. We discuss the merits of peer review and its weaknesses, both perceived and real, as well as the practicalities of several major proposed changes to the system. It is our hope that readers will(More)
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the spinal cord and brain. Mounting evidence suggests that activation of microglia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain, including chronic orofacial pain. In particular, microglia contribute to the transition from acute pain to chronic pain, as inhibition of microglial signaling reduces(More)
Acid-sensing ion channel-1 (ASIC-1) is a proton-gated ion channel implicated in nociception and neuronal death during ischemia. Recently the first crystal structure of a chicken ASIC was obtained. Expanding upon this work, homology models of the human ASICs were constructed and evaluated. Energy-minimized structures were tested for validity by in silico(More)
We present the evidence for a direct physical association of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), two major ion channels implicated in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis, a devastating inherited disease. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer, a distance-dependent imaging technique(More)
High grade gliomas such as glioblastoma multiforme express multiple members of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/Degenerin family, characteristically displaying a basally active amiloride-sensitive cation current not seen in normal human astrocytes or lower grade gliomas. Using quantitative real time PCR, we have shown higher expression of ASIC1,(More)
Amiloride-sensitive ion channels are formed from homo- or heteromeric combinations of subunits from the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)/degenerin superfamily, which also includes the acid-sensitive ion channel (ASIC) family. These channel subunits share sequence homology and topology. In this study, we have demonstrated, using confocal fluorescence resonance(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders. It results primarily from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) gene. These mutations cause inadequate functioning of CFTR, which in turn leads to the severe disruption of transport function in several epithelia across various organs. Affected(More)
Amiloride is a small molecule diuretic, which has been used to dissect sodium transport pathways in many different systems. This drug is known to interact with the epithelial sodium channel and acid-sensing ion channel proteins, as well as sodium/hydrogen antiporters and sodium/calcium exchangers. The exact structural basis for these interactions has not(More)
The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and acid-sensitive ion channel (ASIC) branches of the ENaC/degenerin superfamily of cation channels have drawn increasing attention as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of diseases and conditions. Originally thought to be solely expressed in fluid absorptive epithelia and in neurons, it has become apparent that(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder, characterized by both clinical and genetic complexities, and arises as a result of mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The gene encodes a Cl(-) channel belonging to the ABC (ATP Binding Cassette) superfamily of transporters. The members of this superfamily use(More)