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Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Valproate (VPA) has long been used for the treatment of seizures and bipolar mood disorder. In(More)
BACKGROUND Endogenous estrogens play an important role in the overall cardiocirculatory system. However, there are no studies exploring the hormone metabolism and signaling pathway genes together on ischemic stroke, including sulfotransferase family 1E (SULT1E1), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and estrogen receptor α (ESR1). METHODS A case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Ansa cervicalis (AC)-recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis (RLN) is usually not desirable for correction of paralytic dysphonia when it is difficult to find a viable distal stump of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Nerve implantation of the thyroarytenoid muscle with the ansa cervicalis is a simple alternative method. STUDY DESIGN Ten patients(More)
Prion diseases (also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are associated with the conversion of the normal cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) to an abnormal scrapie-isoform (PrP(Sc). The conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) is post-translational and is owing to protein conformational change. This has led to the hypothesis that molecular(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the midlife risk factors for subtypes of dementia newly developed later in life. METHODS A nested case-control study was conducted on 157 demented cases and 628 comparison cases selected from 40,636 men and women who were enrolled from 1982 to 1992. Four comparison cases were frequency-matched on age, time at enrollment (within 6(More)
Holmes tremor is also known as rubral or midbrain tremor. The tremor usually involves lesions near the red nucleus and the nerve fiber tracts originating in the cerebellum and the substantia nigra. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with Holmes tremor 5 months after a left thalamic hemorrhage, with a partial recovery 3 years later.(More)
A 26-year-old patient developed ascending weakness and paresthesias. Megaloblastic anemia and mildly reduced serum vitamin B12 (B12) concentration were noted. Myoclonus-like muscular contractions appeared over four extremities and in the trunk. She admitted inhaling nitrous oxide (N2O) as a euphoriant repeatedly at party. Following parenteral B12(More)
PURPOSE We had recently reported one case at American Journal of Emergency Medicine about centralvariant posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in an 84-year-old woman with an initial misdiagnosis as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Here, we introduce another case of centralvariant PRES in a 49-year-old man mimicking as acute brainstem(More)