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The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is thought to be an important regulator of food intake. Recently the orphan G protein-coupled receptor SLC-1 was identified as the MCH receptor (MCHR). Preliminary analyses of MCHR mRNA distribution have supported a role for the MCH system in nutritional homeostasis. We report here a complete anatomical(More)
Orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cloned proteins with structural characteristics common to the GPCRs but that bind unidentified ligands. Orphan GPCRs have been used as targets to identify novel transmitter molecules. Here we describe the isolation from brain extracts and the characterization of the natural ligand of a particular orphan GPCR(More)
Urotensin II (UII) is a peptide known to be a potent vasoconstrictor. The urotensin II receptor (UII-R) is expressed not only in peripheral tissues but also in the brain of rodents. As a basis for studies of UII central nervous system actions, UII-R localization in the rat brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization and by in situ binding. UII-R mRNA was(More)
Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which(More)
The molecular basis for regulation of dendritic cell (DC) development and homeostasis remains unclear. Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), an immunoglobulin superfamily protein that is predominantly expressed in DCs, mediates cell-cell signaling by interacting with CD47, another immunoglobulin superfamily protein. We now show that the number of CD11c(high)(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) promote immune responses to foreign Ags and immune tolerance to self-Ags. Deregulation of DCs is implicated in autoimmunity, but the molecules that regulate DCs to protect against autoimmunity have remained unknown. In this study, we show that mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 specifically in DCs develop splenomegaly(More)
Common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs) in the bone marrow (BM) regenerate dendritic cells (DCs) in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. How the dissemination of progenitor-derived DCs to peripheral tissues is regulated on need remains elusive. Microbes are sensed by pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found that CDPs in the(More)
The life span of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is short (3-5 days), and its regulation is thought to be important for homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of IEC turnover in the small intestine. The proliferative activity of IECs in intestinal crypts as well as the migration of(More)