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Myogenin is required not for the initiation of myogenesis but instead for skeletal muscle formation through poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrate in cultured cells and, for the first time, in embryonic tissue, that myogenic late genes that specify the skeletal muscle phenotype are bound by MyoD prior to the initiation of gene expression. At the onset(More)
The activation of muscle-specific gene expression requires the coordinated action of muscle regulatory proteins and chromatin-remodeling enzymes. Microarray analysis performed in the presence or absence of a dominant-negative BRG1 ATPase demonstrated that approximately one-third of MyoD-induced genes were highly dependent on SWI/SNF enzymes. To understand(More)
Traumatic injury in the central nervous system induces inflammation; however, the role of this inflammation is controversial. Precise analysis of the inflammatory cells is important to gain a better understanding of the inflammatory machinery in response to neural injury. Here, we demonstrated that leukotriene B4 plays a significant role in mediating(More)
The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and mutation at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus and toxicities of 40 different chemical and physical agents were examined on Chinese hamster V79 cells. These agents included mono-, di-, tri-, and polyfunctional alkylating agents, intercalators, gamma-rays, and UV light irradiation.(More)
Previous experimental and clinical studies have suggested that the behavioral and pathological outcomes of spinal cord injury (SCI) are affected by the individual's age at the time of injury. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for these differences remains elusive because it is difficult to match injuries of similar severities between young and(More)
INI1/hSNF5/BAF47, which has an SNF5 domain, belongs to the SWI/SNF family. This family is known as ATP-dependent regulators of gene expression by remodeling chromatin structure during cell differentiation. However, the detailed function of INI1/hSNF5/BAF47 is unclear. Here we report the generation of a specific monoclonal antibody for INI1/hSNF5/BAF47 by(More)
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation is a promising treatment for various neurodegenerative disorders including spinal cord injury, however, no direct analysis has ever been performed on their in vivo profile after transplantation. Here we combined bioimaging, flow-cytometric isolation and ultra-high-throughput RNA sequencing to evaluate the(More)
Regulation of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key regulatory step in gene transcription. Recently, the little elongation complex (LEC)-which contains the transcription elongation factor ELL/EAF-was found to be required for the transcription of Pol II-dependent small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes. Here we show that the human Mediator(More)
The initiation of cellular differentiation involves alterations in gene expression that depend on chromatin changes, at the level of both higher-order structures and individual genes. Consistent with this, chromatin-remodelling enzymes have key roles in differentiation and development. The functions of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling enzymes have been(More)
In eukaryotic cells, post-translational histone modifications have an important role in gene regulation. Starting with early work on histone acetylation, a variety of residue-specific modifications have now been linked to RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) activity, but it remains unclear if these markers are active regulators of transcription or just passive(More)