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RATIONALE Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation caused by emphysema and/or airway narrowing. Computed tomography has been widely used to assess emphysema severity, but less attention has been paid to the assessment of airway disease using computed tomography. OBJECTIVES To obtain longitudinal images and(More)
Pulmonary macrophages are one of the sources of various antioxidant and detoxification enzymes for which NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional factor. Although Nrf2 deficiency reportedly induces severe emphysema in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), no reports have studied Nrf2 regulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).(More)
Chronic airway inflammation, one of the pathophysiologic features of bronchial asthma, is suspected to be responsible for irreversible pathological changes of airways, called airway remodeling. To examine the mechanisms of airway remodeling in asthma, we investigated the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor immunohistochemically in(More)
BACKGROUND Airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by a mixture of small airway disease and emphysema, the relative contributions of which may vary among patients. Phenotypes of COPD classified purely based on severity of emphysema are not well defined and may be different from the classic phenotypes of "pink puffers"(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a survival factor in endothelial cells and a promoter of angiogenesis that reportedly plays a pivotal role protecting against injury. In aged humans and animals, lung injuries are generally more serious and cause higher mortality. We thus hypothesized that the expression of VEGF and its related molecules in the(More)
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), also called basigin, is present in the lung during development, but its expression in normal adult lung is minimal. Increases of EMMPRIN have been found in various forms of experimental lung injury. To determine whether EMMPRIN might be involved in alveolar injury/repair associated with smoking, we(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that reportedly counteracts the anti-inflammatory effect of endogenous glucocorticoids. There have only been a few reports that demonstrate a potential link between MIF and bronchial asthma. In an attempt to further clarify the precise role of MIF in asthma, the present authors(More)
Pulmonary macrophages are one of the sources of various antioxidant and detoxification enzymes for which NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional factor. Although Nrf2 deficiency reportedly induces severe emphysema in smoking mice, no reports have studied Nrf2 regulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, Nrf2(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a survival factor for endothelial cells and a promoter of angiogenesis, is reportedly expressed in alveolar macrophages (AMs). To investigate whether long-term smoking with age affects VEGF expression in AMs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 18 young and 23 older volunteers with various smoking(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is known to accelerate wound healing and induce cell differentiation. All-trans RA (ATRA) exerts its effect by binding retinoic acid receptors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We investigated whether RA can alter expression of eotaxin, a potent eosinophil chemoattractant that is regulated by the transcription factors(More)