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Since a deep involvement of astrocytes, a kind of glial cells, in differentiation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been suggested, we examined the relation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to the BBB. First, immunohistochemical examination of the cerebral cortex of rats revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a safe and non-invasive technique for the in vivo study of brain chemistry and metabolism. As such, it is highly applicable to the study of living brain tissue in psychiatric diseases. Several neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have suggested that abnormalities of the basal ganglia nuclei might be implicated(More)
It is well known that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) matures at approximately 2 wk after birth in the rat. Recently, we showed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) enhances the barrier function of porcine endothelial cells forming the BBB in culture. In the present study, we examined the relation between permeability of the BBB, using(More)
Elevated amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in brain contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. We demonstrated the presence of exosome-associated Aβ in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cynomolgus monkeys and APP transgenic mice. The levels of exosome-associated Aβ notably decreased in the CSF of aging animals. We also determined that neuronal exosomes, but(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMS) was used to examine the ratio of choline-containing compound (Cho) to creatine (Cr) in the basal ganglia. Subjects comprised 10 bipolar I affective disorder patients and 10 healthy control subjects. No significant difference was found in the Cho/Cr, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cr, or NAA/Cho ratios between(More)
The retina is protected from somatic circulation by the blood-retinal barrrier (BRB) composed of tight junctions between retinal vascular endothelial cells (the inner BRB) and those between retinal pigment epithelial cells (the outer BRB). Our recent studies showed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) secreted from astrocytes regulates(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is accumulated in platelets and released on stimulation by thrombin or Ca(2+). Thrombin-stimulated S1P release was inhibited by staurosporin, whereas Ca(2+)-stimulated release was not. When the platelet plasma membrane was permeabilized with streptolysin O (SLO), S1P leaked out with cytosol markers, whereas granular markers(More)
PURPOSE To assess magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool of neurovascular compression in a patient with abducens nerve palsy. METHODS We performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem of a 46-year-old patient with left abducens nerve palsy using spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR), which allows high-resolution(More)
Biological membranes consist of lipid bilayers. The lipid compositions between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane differ, generating lipid asymmetry. Maintenance of proper lipid asymmetry is physiologically quite important, and its collapse induces several cellular responses including apoptosis and platelet coagulation. Thus, a change in lipid(More)
The discovery of ceramide kinase (CerK), which phosphorylates ceramide (Cer) to ceramide 1-phisphate (C1P), established a new pathway for Cer metabolism. Among mouse tissues, brain contains the highest CerK activity. In this study, we found that CerK is highly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Since Purkinje cells are important for motor-related(More)