Yasuyuki Igarashi

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Elevated amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in brain contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. We demonstrated the presence of exosome-associated Aβ in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cynomolgus monkeys and APP transgenic mice. The levels of exosome-associated Aβ notably decreased in the CSF of aging animals. We also determined that neuronal exosomes, but(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is accumulated in platelets and released on stimulation by thrombin or Ca(2+). Thrombin-stimulated S1P release was inhibited by staurosporin, whereas Ca(2+)-stimulated release was not. When the platelet plasma membrane was permeabilized with streptolysin O (SLO), S1P leaked out with cytosol markers, whereas granular markers(More)
The present studies were undertaken to characterize the potential role of sphingosine in the regulation of apoptosis in III-t.O promyelocytic leukemia cells. A 6-h exposure of HL-60 cells to sphingosine or its meth ylated derivative, /VVV-dimethylsphingosine, caused internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and stereotypical morphological changes character istic(More)
Biological membranes consist of lipid bilayers. The lipid compositions between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane differ, generating lipid asymmetry. Maintenance of proper lipid asymmetry is physiologically quite important, and its collapse induces several cellular responses including apoptosis and platelet coagulation. Thus, a change in lipid(More)
The discovery of ceramide kinase (CerK), which phosphorylates ceramide (Cer) to ceramide 1-phisphate (C1P), established a new pathway for Cer metabolism. Among mouse tissues, brain contains the highest CerK activity. In this study, we found that CerK is highly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Since Purkinje cells are important for motor-related(More)
BACKGROUND Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPARα is highly expressed in the liver and controls genes involved in lipid catabolism. We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than(More)
The ganglioside patterns have been shown to dramatically change during cell proliferation and differentiation and in certain cell-cycle phases, brain development, and cancer malignancy. To investigate the significance of the ganglioside GM3 in cancer malignancy, we established GM3-reconstituted cells by transfecting the cDNA of GM3 synthase into a(More)
PURPOSE Stargardt disease 3 (STGD3) is a juvenile macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the elongase of very long-chain fatty acids-like 4 (ELOVL4) gene, which encodes an elongase involved in the production of extremely long-chain fatty acids. The STGD3-related mutations cause production of C-terminally truncated proteins (ELOVL4ΔC). STGD3 is transmitted(More)
Exosomes represent a subtype of extracellular nanovesicles that are generated from the luminal budding of limiting endosomal membranes and subsequent exocytosis. They encapsulate or associate with obsolete molecules to eliminate or to transfer their cargos in intercellular communication. The exosomes are also released and transported between neurons and(More)
Two phenotypic parameters, aberrant expression of protein kinase C and tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation (PA), have been correlated with abnormal growth behavior and metastatic potential of tumor cells. We recently observed that A'.A'.A'-trimethylsphingosine (TIMS) and ¿V./V-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), but not sphingosine (SPN), had an inhibi tory(More)