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The Lass (longevity-assurance homologue) family members, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes, function in ceramide synthesis. In the mouse, there are at least five Lass family members, Lass1, Lass2, Lass4, Lass5 and the hitherto uncharacterized Lass6. To investigate specific roles for each Lass member in ceramide synthesis, we cloned these five(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that DHHC cysteine-rich domain-containing proteins (DHHC proteins) are protein acyltransferases. Although multiple DHHC proteins are found in eukaryotes, characterization has been examined for only a few. Here, we have cloned all the yeast and human DHHC genes and investigated their intracellular localization and(More)
Membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) are now recognized as critical for proper compartmentalization of insulin signaling. We previously demonstrated that, in adipocytes in a state of TNFalpha-induced insulin resistance, the inhibition of insulin metabolic signaling and the elimination of insulin receptors (IR) from the caveolae microdomains were associated(More)
Gangliosides are known as modulators of transmembrane signaling by regulating various receptor functions. We have found that insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was accompanied by increased GM3 ganglioside expression caused by elevating GM3 synthase activity and its mRNA. We also demonstrated that(More)
Membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) are now recognized as critical for proper compartmentalization of insulin signaling, but their role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance has not been investigated. Detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs), isolated in the low-density fractions, are highly enriched in cholesterol, glycosphingolipids and(More)
The bioactive molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is abundantly stored in platelets and can be released extracellularly. However, although they have high sphingosine (Sph) kinase activity, platelets lack the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis necessary to provide the substrates. Here, we reveal a generation pathway for Sph, the precursor of S1P, in human(More)
Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) exert a variety of cellular functions and are associated with numerous diseases. However, the precise pathway behind their elongation has remained elusive. Moreover, few regulatory mechanisms for VLCFAs synthesis have been identified. Elongases catalyze the first of four steps in the VLCFA elongation cycle; mammals have(More)
Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) phosphorylates sphingosine to form a bioactive lipid mediator, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). S1P mediates such diverse biological processes as regulation of cell differentiation, motility, and apoptosis both extracellularly, via S1P (Edg) family receptors, and intracellularly, through unidentified targets. In cells S1P is(More)
The bioactive lipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) binds to specific cell surface receptors and regulates several cellular processes. S1P is abundant in plasma, and physiologically its most important target cells are lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells. S1P plays a pivotal role in the immune system by regulating lymphocyte egress from the(More)
Although most of pharmacological therapies for cancer utilize the apoptotic machinery of the cells, the available anti-cancer drugs are limited due to the ability of prostate cancer cells to escape from the anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis. A human prostate cancer cell line PC3 is resistant to camptothecin (CPT). To elucidate the mechanism of this(More)