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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Pichia pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha are methylotrophic yeasts capable of utilizing methanol, as a sole source of carbon and energy. Growth of these yeast species on methanol requires the synthesis of cytosolic and peroxisomal enzymes combined with the proliferation of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are also abundantly present in the alkane-utilizing yeast(More)
We used the dye N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl ) pyridinium dibromide (FM4-64) and a fusion protein, consisting of the green fluorescent protein appended to the peroxisomal targeting signal, Ser-Lys-Leu (SKL), to label the vacuolar membrane and the peroxisomal matrix, respectively, in living Pichia pastoris cells and(More)
Microautophagy is a versatile process in which vacuolar or lysosomal membranes directly sequester cytosolic targets for degradation. Recent genetic evidence suggested that microautophagy uses molecular machineries essential for macroautophagy, but the details of this process are still unknown. In this study, a ubiquitin-like protein Paz2 essential for(More)
A new isolate, Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, is capable of growth on propane and n-alkanes with C(13) to C(22) carbon chains as the sole source of carbon. In whole-cell reactions, significant propane oxidation to 2-propanol was detected. A gene cluster designated prmABCD, which encodes the components of a putative dinuclear-iron-containing multicomponent(More)
Diverse cellular processes such as autophagic protein degradation require phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. In the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, peroxisomes can be selectively degraded via two types of pexophagic pathways, macropexophagy and micropexophagy. Both involve membrane fusion events at the vacuolar surface that are(More)
Dysfunctions of the mitochondria and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are linked to many aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the order of these events remains unclear. Here, we show that the initial impairment occurs in mitochondria under proteasome inhibition. Fluorescent redox probe(More)
Fatty acid chain elongation is a crucial step in the biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids. An essential reaction in the elongation process is condensation of malonyl-CoA with acyl-CoA, which is catalyzed by beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) in plants. We have isolated and characterized the MpFAE3 gene, one of the KCS gene family in the liverwort Marchantia(More)
The glutathione redox system, including the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione regeneration reaction, has been found to play a critical role in the yeast Pichia pastoris during growth on methanol, and this regulation was at least partly executed by the transcription factor PpYap1. During adaptation to methanol medium, PpYap1 transiently localized to(More)