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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
We used the dye N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl ) pyridinium dibromide (FM4-64) and a fusion protein, consisting of the green fluorescent protein appended to the peroxisomal targeting signal, Ser-Lys-Leu (SKL), to label the vacuolar membrane and the peroxisomal matrix, respectively, in living Pichia pastoris cells and(More)
Eukaryotic methylotrophs, which are able to obtain all the carbon and energy needed for growth from methanol, are restricted to a limited number of yeast species. When these yeasts are grown on methanol as the sole carbon and energy source, the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism are strongly induced, and the membrane-bound organelles, peroxisomes,(More)
The large number of names associated with these field, and make it quite intimidating for researchers in other fields, or even for autophagy researchers in non-yeast systems, to keep track of the various gene prod-Perhaps the most striking advantage of working with ucts. Accordingly, following discussions at the first Gor-certain yeast systems is the(More)
Phosphoinositides regulate a wide range of cellular activities, including membrane trafficking and biogenesis, via interaction with various effector proteins that contain phosphoinositide binding motifs. We show that in the yeast Pichia pastoris, phosphatidylinositol 4'-monophosphate (PI4P) initiates de novo membrane synthesis that is required for(More)
The abundance of peroxisomes within a cell can rapidly decrease by selective autophagic degradation (also designated pexophagy). Studies in yeast species have shown that at least two modes of peroxisome degradation are employed, namely macropexophagy and micropexophagy. During macropexophagy, peroxisomes are individually sequestered by membranes, thus(More)
The PROPPIN family member Atg18 is a phosphoinositide-binding protein that is composed of a seven β-propeller motif and is part of the conserved autophagy machinery. Here, we report that the Atg18 phosphorylation in the loops in the propellar structure of blade 6 and blade 7 decreases its binding affinity to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate in the(More)
The capacity to use methanol as sole source of carbon and energy is restricted to relatively few yeast species. This may be related to the low efficiency of methanol metabolism in yeast, relative to that of prokaryotes. This contribution describes the details of methanol metabolism in yeast and focuses on the significance of compartmentalization of this(More)
A newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, Thauera sp. strain DNT-1, grew on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. When this strain was cultivated under oxygen-limiting conditions with nitrate, first toluene was degraded as oxygen was consumed, while later toluene was degraded as nitrate was reduced.(More)
Dysfunctions of the mitochondria and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are linked to many aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the order of these events remains unclear. Here, we show that the initial impairment occurs in mitochondria under proteasome inhibition. Fluorescent redox probe(More)