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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
A new isolate, Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, is capable of growth on propane and n-alkanes with C(13) to C(22) carbon chains as the sole source of carbon. In whole-cell reactions, significant propane oxidation to 2-propanol was detected. A gene cluster designated prmABCD, which encodes the components of a putative dinuclear-iron-containing multicomponent(More)
We used the dye N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl ) pyridinium dibromide (FM4-64) and a fusion protein, consisting of the green fluorescent protein appended to the peroxisomal targeting signal, Ser-Lys-Leu (SKL), to label the vacuolar membrane and the peroxisomal matrix, respectively, in living Pichia pastoris cells and(More)
Methyl formate synthesis during growth on methanol by methylotrophic yeasts has been considered to play a role in formaldehyde detoxification. An enzyme that catalyses methyl formate synthesis was purified from methylotrophic yeasts, and was suggested to belong to a family of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). In this study we report the gene cloning and gene(More)
A newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, Thauera sp. strain DNT-1, grew on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. When this strain was cultivated under oxygen-limiting conditions with nitrate, first toluene was degraded as oxygen was consumed, while later toluene was degraded as nitrate was reduced.(More)
BACKGROUND In the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, peroxisomes can be selectively degraded through direct engulfment by the vacuole in a process known as micropexophagy, but the mechanism of micropexophagy is not known. RESULTS To gain molecular insights into micropexophagy, we used fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, coupled with gene-tagging(More)
Pichia pastoris and Hansenula polymorpha are methylotrophic yeasts capable of utilizing methanol, as a sole source of carbon and energy. Growth of these yeast species on methanol requires the synthesis of cytosolic and peroxisomal enzymes combined with the proliferation of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are also abundantly present in the alkane-utilizing yeast(More)
Fungal sterol glucosyltransferases, which synthesize sterol glucoside (SG), contain a GRAM domain as well as a pleckstrin homology and a catalytic domain. The GRAM domain is suggested to play a role in membrane traffic and pathogenesis, but its significance in any biological processes has never been experimentally demonstrated. We describe herein that(More)
Microautophagy is a versatile process in which vacuolar or lysosomal membranes directly sequester cytosolic targets for degradation. Recent genetic evidence suggested that microautophagy uses molecular machineries essential for macroautophagy, but the details of this process are still unknown. In this study, a ubiquitin-like protein Paz2 essential for(More)