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Over evolutionary time, Wolbachia has been repeatedly transferred between host species contributing to the widespread distribution of the symbiont in arthropods. For novel infections to be maintained, Wolbachia must infect the female germ line after being acquired by horizontal transfer. Although mechanistic examples of horizontal transfer exist, there is a(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and other retroviruses synthesize a DNA copy of their genome after entry into the host cell. Integration of this DNA into the host cell's genome is an essential step in the viral replication cycle. The viral DNA is synthesized in the cytoplasm and is associated with viral and cellular proteins in a large nucleoprotein(More)
Retroviral integration is mediated by a preintegration complex (PIC) which contains the viral DNA made by reverse transcription together with associated protein factors. Prior to association with target DNA, the PIC must avoid suicidal intramolecular integration of its viral DNA (autointegration). We have demonstrated that barrier-to-autointegration factor(More)
ISGylation, an ubiquitin-like post-translational modification by ISG15, has been reported to participate in the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response. In this study, we analyzed the functional role of ISGylation in dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) replication. Overexpression of ISG15 was found to significantly suppress the amount of extracellular infectious(More)
AgDNV is a powerful gene transduction tool and potential biological control agent for Anopheles mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter virus system, we investigated AgDNV host range specificity in four arthropod cell lines (derived from An. gambiae, Aedes albopictus and Drosophila melanogaster) and six mosquito species from 3 genera (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis,(More)
Whereas the dengue virus (DENV) non-structural (NS) proteins NS3 and NS5 have been shown to interact in vitro and in vivo, the biological relevance of this interaction in viral replication has not been fully clarified. Here, we first applied a simple and robust in vitro assay based on AlphaScreen technology in combination with the wheat-germ cell-free(More)
Integration of viral DNA into the host genome is an essential step in retroviral replication. The viral DNA made by reverse transcription is a component of the preintegration complex (PIC) that also contains the viral integrase protein, the enzyme that integrates the viral DNA. Several other viral and cellular proteins are present in the PIC, but their(More)
We established a set of real-time PCR assay to accurately quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in infected cells. Using this assay we were able to measure the strong-stop, full-length/ 1-LTR circle, 2-LTR circle, and integrated forms of viral DNA, and the data provided was quite consistent with the characteristics of mutant viruses in(More)
Retroviral integration is executed by the preintegration complex (PIC), which contains viral DNA together with a number of proteins. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a cellular component of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) PICs, has been demonstrated to protect viral DNA from autointegration and stimulate the intermolecular integration activity(More)
HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection(More)