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In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In(More)
To clarify evolution and phylogenetic relationships of trypanosome alternative oxidase (AOX) molecules, AOX genes (cDNAs) of the African trypanosomes, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma evansi, were cloned by PCR. Both AOXs possess conserved consensus motifs (-E-, -EXXH-). The putative amino acid sequence of the AOX of T. evansi was exactly the same as(More)
Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasitic eukaryotes that were considered to be amitochondriate until the recent discovery of highly reduced mitochondrial organelles called mitosomes. Analysis of the complete genome of Encephalitozoon cuniculi revealed a highly reduced set of proteins in the organelle, mostly related to the assembly of(More)
Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protozoan that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis, for which no satisfactory chemotherapy is currently available. Although the presence of mitochondria in this parasite has been suggested, its respiratory system is poorly understood due to difficulties in performing biochemical analyses. In order to better(More)
Alveolar echinococcosis, which is due to the massive growth of larval Echinococcus multilocularis, is a life-threatening parasitic zoonosis distributed widely across the northern hemisphere. Commercially available chemotherapeutic compounds have parasitostatic but not parasitocidal effects. Parasitic organisms use various energy metabolic pathways that(More)
Electrochemistry coupled with Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the redox properties of recombinant alternative ubiquinol oxidase from Trypanosoma brucei, the organism responsible for African sleeping sickness. Stepwise reduction of the fully oxidized resting state of recombinant alternative ubiquinol oxidase revealed two(More)
Based on amino acid sequence similarity and the ability to catalyze the four-electron reduction of oxygen to water using a quinol substrate, mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) appear to be two closely related members of the membrane-bound diiron carboxylate group of proteins. In the current studies, we took advantage(More)
The trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) functions in the African trypanosomes as a cytochrome-independent terminal oxidase, which is essential for their survival in the mammalian host and as it does not exist in the mammalian host is considered to be a promising drug target for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. In the present study, recombinant TAO (rTAO)(More)
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense are known causes of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or "sleeping sickness," which is deadly if untreated. We previously reported that a specific inhibitor of trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO), ascofuranone, quickly kills African trypanosomes in vitro and cures mice infected with another subspecies,(More)
Cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial membrane protein and a non-proton-pumping ubiquinol oxidase that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. In the African trypanosomes, trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) functions as a cytochrome-independent terminal oxidase that is essential for survival in the mammalian(More)