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Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are classically known to be expressed in the distal collecting duct of the kidney. Recently it was reported that MR is identified in the heart and vasculature. Although MR expression is also found in the brain, it is restricted to the hippocampus and cerebral cortex under normal condition, and the role played by MRs in(More)
OBJECTIVE We demonstrated previously that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2)-positive cells can differentiate into both vascular endothelial cells and mural cells. This time, we investigated kinetics of differentiation of human ES cells to vascular cells and examined their potential as a source for(More)
Natriuretic peptides (NPs), which consist of atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP, respectively), are characterized as cardiac or vascular hormones that elicit their biological effects by activation of the cGMPcGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) pathway. We recently reported that adenoviral gene transfer of CNP into rabbit blood(More)
Thiazolidinediones, a new class of antidiabetic drugs that increase insulin sensitivity, have been shown to be ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Recent studies demonstrating that PPARgamma occurs in macrophages have focused attention on its role in macrophage functions. In this study, we investigated the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND We demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells-derived vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2) positive cells could differentiate into both endothelial cells (EC) and mural cells (MC), and termed them as vascular progenitor cells (VPC). Recently, we have established a method to expand monkey and human ES cells-derived VPC(More)
OBJECTIVE Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been characterized as vascular hormones that regulate vascular tone via guanylyl cyclase (GC), cyclic GMP (cGMP), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). Recent clinical studies have shown that plasma NP levels were lower in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The present study was conducted to elucidate the(More)
BACKGROUND We previously demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGF-R2)-positive cells induced from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into both endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells (MCs) and these vascular cells construct blood vessel structures in vitro. Recently, we have also established a method for the(More)
We previously reported that adrenomedullin (AM), a vasodilating hormone secreted from blood vessels, promotes proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, we examined the ability of AM to promote vascular regeneration. AM increased the phosphorylation of Akt in HUVECs and the effect was inhibited by the AM(More)
Shear stress is known to dilate blood vessels and exert an antiproliferative effect on vascular walls. These effects have partly been ascribed to shear stress-induced regulation of the secretion of endothelium-derived vasoactive substances. In this study, to elucidate the role of shear stress in endothelin production by endothelial cells, we examined the(More)
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasoactive hormone which exerts its action through cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) /cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) cascade and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Recently, evidence has accumulated that AM plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone, remodeling and morphogenesis. And although numerous reports(More)