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PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) and PARKIN (also known as PARK2) have been identified as the causal genes responsible for hereditary recessive early-onset Parkinsonism. PINK1 is a Ser/Thr kinase that specifically accumulates on depolarized mitochondria, whereas parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that catalyses ubiquitin transfer to mitochondrial(More)
The 26S proteasome is a highly conserved multisubunit protease that degrades ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotic cells. The 26S proteasome consists of the proteolytic core particle (CP) and one or two 19S regulatory particles (RPs). Although the mechanisms of CP assembly are well described, the mechanism of RP assembly is largely unknown. Here, we show(More)
The 26S proteasome consists of the 20S proteasome (core particle) and the 19S regulatory particle made of the base and lid substructures, and it is mainly localized in the nucleus in yeast. To examine how and where this huge enzyme complex is assembled, we performed biochemical and microscopic characterization of proteasomes produced in two lid mutants,(More)
Cpdm (chronic proliferative dermatitis) mice develop chronic dermatitis and an immunodeficiency with increased serum IgM, symptoms that resemble those of patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome and hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHM-ED), which is caused by mutations in NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator; also known as IKBKG). Spontaneous null mutations(More)
It has been suggested that degradation of polyubiquitylated proteins is coupled to dissociation of 26S proteasomes. In contrast, using several independent types of experiments, we find that mammalian proteasomes can degrade polyubiquitylated proteins without disassembling. Thus, immobilized, (35)S-labeled 26S proteasomes degraded polyubiquitylated Sic1 and(More)
Microorganisms are generally used for mass production of foreign gene products, but multicellular organisms such as plants have been proposed as an economical alternative. The silkworm may be useful in this context as it can be cultured easily and at low cost. We have therefore developed a virus vector to introduce foreign genes, for example, the gene for(More)
Cellular wound healing, enabling the repair of membrane damage, is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. One aspect of the wound healing response is the redirection of a polarized cytoskeleton and the secretory machinery to the damage site. Although there has been recent progress in identifying conserved proteins involved in wound healing, the mechanisms linking these(More)
PINK1 selectively recruits Parkin to depolarized mitochondria for quarantine and removal of damaged mitochondria via ubiquitylation. Dysfunction of this process predisposes development of familial recessive Parkinson's disease. Although various models for the recruitment process have been proposed, none of them adequately explain the accumulated data, and(More)
The effects of electrical stimulation of cervical sympathetic trunks for 1-min duration at supramaximal intensity with various stimulus frequencies on local cortical cerebral blood flow were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation with low frequency (1-2 Hz) produced a significant increase in local cortical cerebral blood flow(More)
In urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats, electrical or chemical (by L-glutamate) focal stimulations of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) produced an increase in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF). The RVLM-induced cortical vasodilative response was present in animals with spinal cords sectioned at levels of Th3-4 and with bilateral(More)