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Naturally occurring Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for maintaining immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Here, we show that a specific deficiency of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in Tregs results in spontaneous development of systemic lymphoproliferation, fatal T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, and(More)
Naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress in vitro the proliferation of other T cells in a cell-contact-dependent manner. Dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be a target of Treg-mediated immune suppression. We show here that, in coculture of dye-labeled Treg cells and CD4(+)CD25(-) naïve T cells in the presence of T cell receptor(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs), either natural or induced, suppress a variety of physiological and pathological immune responses. One of the key issues for understanding Treg function is to determine how they suppress other lymphocytes at the molecular level in vivo and in vitro. Here we propose that there may be a key suppressive mechanism that is shared by(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE CT angiography (CTA) has been used for the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms and recently has been applied to assess postoperative aneurysms treated with titanium-alloy clips. We investigated the clinical usefulness of subtraction CTA by using the orbital synchronized helical scan technique (OSHST) for evaluating intracranial(More)
Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are clinically and genetically a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, mild CAG repeat expansion in the alpha1A voltage-dependent calcium channel gene has been found to be associated with a type of autosomal dominant SCA (SCA6). We analyzed 98 Japanese families with autosomal dominant(More)
It is believed that Borna disease virus (BDV), an etiological agent of progressive polioencephalomyelitis in horses and sheep, is closely associated with psychiatric disorders in humans since the prevalence of BDV is higher in psychiatric patients than in blood donors. We investigated whether or not BDVs in humans are derived from infected domestic animals,(More)
Adipocytes contain three major substrate proteins of the insulin receptor, termed IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-3. We demonstrated that IRS-1 and IRS-2 are located mainly in the low density microsome (LDM) fraction and are tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin stimulation, leading to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activation. In contrast, IRS-3 is(More)
UNLABELLED The feasibility of a noninvasive method for quantification of [123I]iomazenil binding using a standardized arterial input function and a single venous blood sample was assessed in normal volunteers. METHODS Serial SPECT images and blood data from six healthy male volunteers after intravenous injection of [123I]iomazenil were used. The(More)
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2, which mediate phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activation, play essential roles in insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 and in glycogen synthesis. In this study, we investigated the process of PI 3-kinase activation via binding with IRS-1 and -2 in liver, muscle, and fat of high-fat-fed rats, a model of(More)
Glucocorticoids reportedly induce insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which treatment with dexamethasone has been shown to impair the insulin-induced increase in glucose uptake. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with dexamethasone, the GLUT1 protein expression(More)