Yasushi Kondoh

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Using positron emission tomography (PET), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were measured in 32 healthy volunteers aged from 27 to 67 years. In bilateral putamen, left supratemporal, left infrafrontal and left parietal cortices, CMRO2 showed a significant decline during aging. The age-related decline of CBF was seen(More)
We induced neural cells by treating cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem (ES) cells with retinoic acid. The treated cells mainly expressed betaIIItubulin. They further differentiated into neurons expressing neurofilament middle chain (NFM) in elongated axons. Half of the cells differentiated into Islet1+ motoneurons in vitro. The monkey ES-derived neural cells(More)
Vascular and metabolic reserve were analyzed in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). Vascular reactivity (VR) was also(More)
The central projection of statocyst sensory neurons associated with the crescent hairs of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii was investigated. Cobalt fills of statocyst nerves revealed that they entered the brain as the two discrete fiber bundles and terminated in different portions of the brain. One terminates in the ipsilateral half of the brain and the(More)
Neuroradiological functional imaging techniques demonstrate the patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism that are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other dementing disorders. Besides the distribution patterns of perfusion or energy metabolism, vascular transit time (VTT), vascular reactivity (VR), and(More)
To elucidate the hemodynamic pathophysiology underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured with positron emission tomography in 10 patients with probable AD and in 20 age-matched normal volunteers. By the 15O intravenous bolus injection method, CBF(More)
The M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M5R) has been shown to play a crucial role in mediating acetylcholine-dependent dilation of cerebral blood vessels. We show that male M5R-/- mice displayed constitutive constriction of cerebral arteries using magnetic resonance angiography in vivo. Male M5R-/- mice exhibited a significantly reduced cerebral blood(More)
Many premotor local nonspiking interneurons are involved in the control of the uropod movements of a crayfish. One of these interneurons was impaled intracellularly, characterized physiologically, and then labeled by intracellular horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injection to examine the distribution and ultrastructure of synapses. Depolarization of this(More)
A series of experiments were performed to investigate why two peaks (D and E) of the five dissolved phase peaks in hyperpolarized (129)Xe rat head spectra appeared inconsistently in previous work. Specifically, spectra were acquired under conditions of various shim states, anaesthetics, and arterial ligation. The shimming experiments showed that(More)
Lateral inhibition of several mechanosensory interneurons in the crayfish terminal ganglion is mediated by a pair of identified local nonspiking interneurons called local directionally selective (LDS) interneurons. The ultrastructure and synaptic distribution of these interneurons were investigated by using intracellular labeling with horseradish peroxidase(More)