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Vascular dementia (VaD) is a heterogeneous clinical entity based on various vascular pathophysiological processes underlying the subtypes of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Several diagnostic criteria are currently being used for the clinical diagnosis of VaD, but they are mostly more than 10 years old and need to be renovated including the use of functional(More)
We induced neural cells by treating cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem (ES) cells with retinoic acid. The treated cells mainly expressed betaIIItubulin. They further differentiated into neurons expressing neurofilament middle chain (NFM) in elongated axons. Half of the cells differentiated into Islet1+ motoneurons in vitro. The monkey ES-derived neural cells(More)
Neuroradiological functional imaging techniques demonstrate the patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism that are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other dementing disorders. Besides the distribution patterns of perfusion or energy metabolism, vascular transit time (VTT), vascular reactivity (VR), and(More)
The M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M5R) has been shown to play a crucial role in mediating acetylcholine-dependent dilation of cerebral blood vessels. We show that male M5R-/- mice displayed constitutive constriction of cerebral arteries using magnetic resonance angiography in vivo. Male M5R-/- mice exhibited a significantly reduced cerebral blood(More)
A series of experiments were performed to investigate why two peaks (D and E) of the five dissolved phase peaks in hyperpolarized (129)Xe rat head spectra appeared inconsistently in previous work. Specifically, spectra were acquired under conditions of various shim states, anaesthetics, and arterial ligation. The shimming experiments showed that(More)
After rats inhaled hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas, in vivo spectra from their heads revealed a dominant peak around 195 ppm, another easily resolvable peak near 189 ppm, a broad peak around 210 ppm, and two minor peaks around 198 ppm and 192 ppm. However, the source of each peak remains controversial. To further study the origin of each peak, we compared(More)
A strong hyperperfusion was reported in transient ischemic tissue between 48 and 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimated by continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) with short delay after tagging was sensitive to cerebral blood volume (CBV) change. The delayed hyperperfusion may indicate a CBV increase(More)
PURPOSE The decay time of hyperpolarized 129Xe in brain tissue depends on the cerebral blood flow (CBF) as well as the longitudinal relaxation time in the tissue (T(1,tissue)). Therefore, the decay time is an important parameter for investigating the potential of Xe for cerebral studies. Previous attempts to measure the decay time have been performed after(More)
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