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We investigated the cortical afferents of the retrosplenial cortex and the adjacent posterior cingulate cortex (area 23) in the macaque monkey by using the retrograde tracers Fast blue and Diamidino yellow. We quantitatively analyzed the distribution of labeled neurons throughout the cortical mantle. Injections involving the retrosplenial cortex resulted in(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We generated a transgenic mouse model carrying a full-length AR containing 97 CAGs. Three of the five lines showed progressive muscular atrophy and weakness as well as diffuse nuclear staining and nuclear(More)
We have investigated the cortical efferent projections of the macaque monkey retrosplenial and posterior cingulate cortices by using (3)H-amino acids as anterograde tracers. All the injections produced extensive local connections to other portions of this region. There were also a number of extrinsic efferent cortical connections, many of which have not(More)
The cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) is one of the major ascending arousal systems in the brain stem and is linked to motor, limbic, and sensory systems. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that PPTN would be related to the integrative control of movement, reinforcement, and performance of tasks in behaving animals. To(More)
To investigate how cerebellar synaptic plasticity guides the acquisition and adaptation of ocular following response (OFR), a large-scale network model was developed. The model includes the cerebral medial superior temporal area (MST), Purkinje cells (P cells) of the ventral paraflocculus, the accessory optic and climbing fiber systems, the brain stem(More)
Signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is important in multiple signal transduction networks in the CNS. However, the specific role of ERK2 in in vivo brain functions is not fully understood. Here we show that ERK2 play a critical role in regulating social behaviors as well as cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice. To study the(More)
In this article, we address the role of neuronal activity in the pathways of the brainstem-midbrain circuit in reward and the basis for believing that this circuit provides advantages over previous reinforcement learning theory. Several lines of evidence support the reward-based learning theory proposing that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons send a teaching(More)
We constructed a realistic simulation model to elucidate whether the characteristics of the cerebellar synaptic plasticity reported in vitro guide the acquisition and adaptation of the ocular following response (OFR). The model reconstructed the firing frequency of the inputs of granule cell axons (GCA), inhibitory cells (IC), and climbing fibers (CF) to(More)
Dopamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, the main modulators of the central nervous system, have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been(More)
The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons isolated from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Gene expression was quantitatively assessed by(More)