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FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is expressed in the vasculature of cotyledons and leaves. A bZIP transcription factor, FD, preferentially expressed in the shoot apex is required for FT to promote(More)
We investigated the cortical afferents of the retrosplenial cortex and the adjacent posterior cingulate cortex (area 23) in the macaque monkey by using the retrograde tracers Fast blue and Diamidino yellow. We quantitatively analyzed the distribution of labeled neurons throughout the cortical mantle. Injections involving the retrosplenial cortex resulted in(More)
We have investigated the cortical efferent projections of the macaque monkey retrosplenial and posterior cingulate cortices by using (3)H-amino acids as anterograde tracers. All the injections produced extensive local connections to other portions of this region. There were also a number of extrinsic efferent cortical connections, many of which have not(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We generated a transgenic mouse model carrying a full-length AR containing 97 CAGs. Three of the five lines showed progressive muscular atrophy and weakness as well as diffuse nuclear staining and nuclear(More)
Many theories of cerebellar motor learning propose that complex spikes (CS) provide essential error signals for learning and modulate parallel fiber inputs that generate simple spikes (SS). These theories, however, do not satisfactorily specify what modality is represented by CS or how information is conveyed by the ultra-low CS firing rate (1 Hz). To(More)
This is the first in a series of reports on the neuroanatomic organization and connectivity of the macaque monkey retrosplenial cortex, i.e., areas 29 and 30. To elucidate the topographic configuration of the retrosplenial cortex and adjacent structures, we have made three-dimensional computer reconstructions of the posterior cingulate region that includes(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within the androgen receptor (AR). The nuclear inclusions consisting of the mutant AR protein are characteristic and combine with many components of ubiquitin-proteasome and molecular chaperone pathways, raising the(More)
The cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) is one of the major ascending arousal systems in the brain stem and is linked to motor, limbic, and sensory systems. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that PPTN would be related to the integrative control of movement, reinforcement, and performance of tasks in behaving animals. To(More)
Signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is important in multiple signal transduction networks in the CNS. However, the specific role of ERK2 in in vivo brain functions is not fully understood. Here we show that ERK2 play a critical role in regulating social behaviors as well as cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice. To study the(More)
In this article, we address the role of neuronal activity in the pathways of the brainstem-midbrain circuit in reward and the basis for believing that this circuit provides advantages over previous reinforcement learning theory. Several lines of evidence support the reward-based learning theory proposing that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons send a teaching(More)