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In Japan, quite a few patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA type 1) survive with mechanical ventilation. Since a patient with SMA type 1 and continuous artificial ventilation exhibited excessive perspiration and tachycardia, we examined the autonomic functions in three cases of SMA type 1, undergoing mechanical ventilation. Two cases exhibited(More)
PURPOSE To clarify whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in retinal cell death, using cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell line transformed with E1A virus), and transgenic mice ER stress-activated indicator (ERAI) mice carrying a human XBP1 and venus a variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion gene. METHODS(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neuronal death may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, whether CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), an ER-stress apoptotic mediator, is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS is controversial. Here we demonstrate the expression levels(More)
PURPOSE To clarify whether the activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) participates in the cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the authors used cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell line transformed with the E1A virus) in vitro and the effect of a PKR inhibitor (an imidazolo-oxindole(More)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal binding proteins and have four isoforms. MT-3, known as growth inhibitory factor (GIF), exists mainly in the central nervous system. It regulates zinc levels and exhibits a neuroprotective effect in the various types of brain diseases. However, the reports demonstrate that the relation between MT-3 and psychiatric disorder(More)
Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were applied to Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing cloned smooth muscle Ca(2+) channel alpha(1)-subunits. In the presence of Ba(2+) as a charge carrier, U-shaped inactivation was observed in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) agonists. Also, tail currents deactivated slowly when conditioning steps of positive(More)
OBJECTIVES We conducted a nationwide survey of glucose transporter type-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1DS) in Japan in order to clarify its incidence as well as clinical and laboratory information. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A questionnaire to survey the number of genetically and clinically confirmed cases of GLUT-1DS was sent to 1018 board-certified pediatric(More)
AIM Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is a metabolic encephalopathy that can be effectively treated with a ketogenic diet. The aim of this study was to consolidate the effectiveness of the modified Atkins diet (MAD) as an alternative treatment for GLUT1-DS. METHOD Six Japanese males with GLUT1-DS were selected for treatment with(More)
Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS), giving rise to impaired glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, is characterized by infantile seizures, complex motor disorders, global developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, and hypoglycorrhachia. GLUT-1 DS can be treated effectively with a ketogenic diet because it can provide an(More)
We report the first two Japanese children diagnosed with glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome. Both boys had been treated under the initial diagnosis of epilepsy and were reinvestigated for previously unexplainable hypoglycorrhachia. Myoclonic seizures developed at 4 months of age in Patient #1 (7 years old), and at 2 months of age in(More)