Yasuo Kawakami

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Architectural properties of the triceps surae muscles were determined in vivo for six men. The ankle was positioned at 15 degrees dorsiflexion (-15 degrees) and 0, 15, and 30 degrees plantar flexion, with the knee set at 0, 45, and 90 degrees. At each position, longitudinal ultrasonic images of the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius and soleus (Sol)(More)
Muscle force (MF) is linearly related to physiological cross-sectional area (CSA), which is obtained from muscle volume (MV) divided by fibre length. Taking into account the fact that joint torque (TQ) is determined by MF multiplied by the moment arm, the maximal TQ would be a function of MV. This proposition was tested in the present study by investigating(More)
Muscle-fiber pennation angles were measured in vivo with the use of ultrasonography to investigate the relationship between fiber pennation and muscle size for 32 male subjects (from untrained subjects to highly trained bodybuilders). From the image of a B-mode ultrasonogram, fiber pennation angles and thickness of triceps brachii were determined, the(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of static stretching on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo. Seven male subjects performed static stretching in which the ankle was passively flexed to 35 degrees of dorsiflexion and remained stationary for 10 min. Before and after the stretching, the elongation of the(More)
In the present study we investigated in vivo length changes in the fascicles and tendon of the human gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during walking. The experimental protocol involved real-time ultrasound scanning of the GM muscle, recording of the electrical activity of the muscle, measurement of knee- and ankle-joint rotations, and measurement of(More)
Androgen-induced growth factor (AIGF/FGF-8) has purified from a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line and its cDNA cloning revealed that AIGF is the eighth member of the fibroblast growth factor family. To clarify a biological role of FGF-8, Northern blot analysis of various adult tissues was carried out, but no expression was found. However, whole mount in(More)
Nine healthy men carried out head-down bed rest (BR) for 20 days. Five subjects (TR) performed isometric, bilateral leg extension exercise every day, while the other four (NT) did not. Before and after BR, maximal isometric knee extension force was measured. Neural activation was assessed using a supramaximal twitch interpolated over voluntary contraction.(More)
Five men underwent unilateral resistance training of elbow extensor (triceps brachii) muscles for 16 weeks. Before and after training, muscle layer thickness and fascicle angles of the long head of the triceps muscle were measured in vivo using B-mode ultrasound, and fascicle lengths were estimated. Series anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) of the(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of human muscle-tendon complex (MTC) during stretch-shortening cycle exercises through in vivo observation. A total of seven male subjects performed dorsi flexion followed by plantar flexion at two different frequencies, 0.3 Hz (slow) and 1.0 Hz (fast), in a toe-standing position. The fascicle length(More)
Four melanoma proteins, MART-1, gp100, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (gp75) were evaluated for recognition by HLA-A2-restricted melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) derived from the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) of 10 different patients. 9 of 10 TIL recognized MART-1, 4 recognized gp100 (including 3 that also recognized(More)