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Various species of marine Vibrio produce two distinct types of flagella, each adapted for a different type of motility. A single, sheathed polar flagellum is suited for swimming in liquid medium, and numerous unsheathed lateral flagella, which are produced only under viscous conditions, are suited for swarming over viscous surfaces. Both types of flagella(More)
The swimming velocity of Escherichia coli at various constant temperatures was found to increase with increasing temperature. The frequency of tumbling had a peak at 34 degrees C and was very low both at 20 and at 39 degrees C. The swimming tracks near the surface of a slide glass showed curves, and the curvature increased the temperature. When the(More)
The protein motive force of metabolizing Bacillus subtilis cells was only slightly affected by changes in the external pH between 5 and 8, although the electrical component and the chemical component of the proton motive force contributed differently at different external pH. The electrical component of the proton motive force was very small at pH 5, and(More)
Weak acids such as acetate and benzoate, which partially collapse the transmembrane proton gradient, not only mediate pH taxis but also impair the motility of Escherichia coli and Salmonella at an external pH of 5.5. In this study, we examined in more detail the effect of weak acids on motility at various external pH values. A change of external pH over the(More)
Amiloride, a specific inhibitor for the Na(+)-driven flagellar motors of alkalophilic Bacillus strains, was found to cause growth inhibition; therefore, the use of amiloride for the isolation of motility mutants was difficult. On the other hand, phenamil, an amiloride analog, inhibited motor rotation without affecting cell growth. A concentration of 50(More)
The Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar is involved in the thermotactic response. We have studied how its thermosensing function is affected by the modification of the four methyl-accepting residues (Gln295, Glu302, Gln309, and Glu491), which play essential roles in adaptation. We found that the primary translational product of tar mediates a(More)
Mutants in Escherichia coli having defects in one of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, Tsr protein, which is the chemoreceptor and transducer for L-serine, showed a reduced but similar type of thermoresponse compared with wild-type strains; the cells showed smooth swimming upon temperature increase and tumbling upon temperature decrease. However,(More)
The thermosensing ability of the Trg and Tap chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli was investigated after amplifying these receptors in a host strain lacking all four known chemoreceptors (Tar, Tsr, Trg, and Tap). Cells with an increased amount of either Trg or Tap showed mostly smooth swimming and no response to thermal stimuli. However, when the(More)
Bacterial flagella are driven by a rotary motor that is energized by an electrochemical ion gradient across the cell membrane. In this study the torque generated by the flagellar motor was measured in tethered cells of a smooth-swimming Escherichia coli strain by using rotating electric fields to determine the relationship between the torque and speed over(More)