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Aminoalkyl derivatives of bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of bone resorption. A single I.P. injection of 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bis-phosphonate (AHBuBP) induced a prolonged enhancement of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity in the bone marrow, spleen, lung, and liver of mice and resulted in an increase in histamine. The induction of HDC by(More)
Alendronate (A), a typical aminobisphosphonate (aminoBP), has a strong bone-resorption-inhibitory activity (BRIA). However, like other aminoBPs it has inflammatory side effects. In contrast, the BRIA of clodronate (C), a non-aminoBP, is much weaker, and in animal experiments it suppresses aminoBP-induced inflammatory reactions. In the present study, we(More)
Exercise necessitates a large supply of O(2) and nutrients and rapid removal of CO(2) and waste products. Histamine is a regulator of the microcirculation (which performs these exchanges), suggesting a possible involvement of histamine in exercise. Histamine is released from either mast cells or non-mast cells. In the latter, histamine is newly formed via(More)
Within a few hours of its injection into mice, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces hypoglycemia and the production of various cytokines. We previously found that interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induce hypoglycemia and that the minimum effective dose of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta is about 1/1000 that of(More)
When a mouse is put into a cylinder too narrow for it to turn (its front end being blocked with a thin plastic strip), the mouse gnaws away the plastic to escape. Hence, the weight reduction in the plastic can be used as an index of 'gnawing activity (GA).' GA was high at first, but decreased with time. Training augmented GA, but not the activity of the(More)
Muramyldipeptide (MDP), the minimum essential structure responsible for the immuno-adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan, is recognized by intracellular nuclear-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2). Muramyldipeptide enhances the activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. Here, we obtained evidence that(More)
OBJECTIVE Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs), the first-choice drugs for diseases that cause enhanced bone resorption, may injure jawbones and gastrointestinal tissues. In rodents, NBPs cause necrosis at injection sites. Bisphosphonates accumulate within bones, especially where there is inflammation. We hypothesized that if jawbone-accumulated NBPs(More)
Intravenous injection of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice induces a rapid accumulation of platelets in the lung and liver. When degradation of the accumulated platelets occurs, anaphylactoid shock follows rapidly, the severity of the shock paralleling the quantity of platelets accumulated in the lung. Here we examined the contributions made by LPS(More)
Microbial components stimulate innate immunity via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), and/or IL-1. We recently reported that in mice, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4-ligand) promotes allergic responses to nickel (Ni) at both the sensitization and elicitation steps. Here, we(More)