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When a mouse is put into a cylinder too narrow for it to turn (its front end being blocked with a thin plastic strip), the mouse gnaws away the plastic to escape. Hence, the weight reduction in the plastic can be used as an index of 'gnawing activity (GA).' GA was high at first, but decreased with time. Training augmented GA, but not the activity of the(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian erythropoiesis can be divided into two distinct types, primitive and definitive, in which new cells are derived from the yolk sac and hematopoietic stem cells, respectively. Primitive erythropoiesis occurs within a restricted period during embryogenesis. Primitive erythrocytes remain nucleated, and their hemoglobins are different from(More)
(insulin resistant). These results suggest that (i) cortisol may not be involved in mediating the resistance of IL-1␣/␤ KO mice to the hypoglycemic action of LPS, (ii) as a mediator, IL-1 is a prerequisite for the hypoglycemic action of LPS, (iii) IL-1␣ and IL-1␤ perform mutual compensation, and (iv) IL-1 plays a role as the primary stimulator of the many(More)
The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute anti-fatigue effect of a liquid nutritive and tonic crude drugs (NTDs) on stress induced in mice. After forced walking for 3 or 6h, the NTDs (applied orally, 10 ml/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity, while the administration of NTDs after rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation stress(More)
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are typical anti-bone-resorptive drugs, with nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs) being stronger than non-nitrogen-containing BPs (non-N-BPs). However, N-BPs have inflammatory/necrotic effects, while the non-N-BPs clodronate and etidronate lack such side effects. Pharmacological studies have suggested that clodronate and etidronate can (i)(More)
We previously reported that the injection of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (NBP) induced the site of erythropoiesis to shift from the bone marrow (BM) to the spleen. Our previous study established a severely anemic mouse model that was treated with a combination of NBP with phenylhydrazine (PHZ), which induced newly discovered hematopoietic organs in(More)