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When a mouse is put into a cylinder too narrow for it to turn (its front end being blocked with a thin plastic strip), the mouse gnaws away the plastic to escape. Hence, the weight reduction in the plastic can be used as an index of 'gnawing activity (GA).' GA was high at first, but decreased with time. Training augmented GA, but not the activity of the(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian erythropoiesis can be divided into two distinct types, primitive and definitive, in which new cells are derived from the yolk sac and hematopoietic stem cells, respectively. Primitive erythropoiesis occurs within a restricted period during embryogenesis. Primitive erythrocytes remain nucleated, and their hemoglobins are different from(More)
Intrathecal (i.t.) injection (between lumbar vertebrae 5 and 6) into mice of a markedly low dose of IL-1alpha (3x10(-4) fmol or 5.4 fg in 5 microl per mouse) induced behaviors involving scratching, biting, and licking of non-stimulated hindpaws. The IL-1-induced behaviors appeared within 10 min of the injection of IL-1alpha, peaked at 20-40 min, and had(More)
In this study, we attempted to clarify the correlation between changes in the level of beta-endorphin (beta-EP) in the mouse brain and the stress-induced analgesia (SIA) after exposing animals to forced walking stress. The immunohistochemical distribution of beta-EP after stress was first analyzed quantitatively in mice and then more specifically using a(More)
The present study was undertaken to investigate the acute anti-fatigue effect of a liquid nutritive and tonic crude drugs (NTDs) on stress induced in mice. After forced walking for 3 or 6h, the NTDs (applied orally, 10 ml/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity, while the administration of NTDs after rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation stress(More)
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are typical anti-bone-resorptive drugs, with nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs) being stronger than non-nitrogen-containing BPs (non-N-BPs). However, N-BPs have inflammatory/necrotic effects, while the non-N-BPs clodronate and etidronate lack such side effects. Pharmacological studies have suggested that clodronate and etidronate can (i)(More)
We previously reported that the injection of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (NBP) induced the site of erythropoiesis to shift from the bone marrow (BM) to the spleen. Our previous study established a severely anemic mouse model that was treated with a combination of NBP with phenylhydrazine (PHZ), which induced newly discovered hematopoietic organs in(More)