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When a mouse is put into a cylinder too narrow for it to turn (its front end being blocked with a thin plastic strip), the mouse gnaws away the plastic to escape. Hence, the weight reduction in the plastic can be used as an index of 'gnawing activity (GA).' GA was high at first, but decreased with time. Training augmented GA, but not the activity of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs), the first-choice drugs for diseases that cause enhanced bone resorption, may injure jawbones and gastrointestinal tissues. In rodents, NBPs cause necrosis at injection sites. Bisphosphonates accumulate within bones, especially where there is inflammation. We hypothesized that if jawbone-accumulated NBPs(More)
Within a few hours of its injection into mice, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces hypoglycemia and the production of various cytokines. We previously found that interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induce hypoglycemia and that the minimum effective dose of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta is about 1/1000 that of(More)
INTRODUCTION Macrophages are considered to play an essential role in the events leading to systemic inflammatory response. Some are known to reside in the peritoneal cavity but there are no reports defining the participation of peritoneal macrophages (PMs) in the progression of acute pancreatitis. AIM To clarify the role of PMs in the progression of acute(More)
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, but they frequently induce various inflammatory side effects. Recent clinical applications have disclosed an unexpected new side effect, jaw-bone necrosis and exposure. In vitro studies suggest that the inflammatory effects of NBPs are due to Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cells,(More)
Nickel (Ni) has been shown to be one of the most frequent metal allergens. We have already reported a murine metal allergy model with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as adjuvants. Interleukin (IL)-1β plays a critical role in our mouse model. Because nonimmune cells, including fibroblasts, play important roles in local allergic inflammation,(More)
Our previous study indicated that injecting nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (NBP) induced the site of erythropoiesis to shift from the bone marrow (BM) to the spleen. This was due to the depletion of BM-resident macrophages, which support erythropoiesis. In this study, we examined NBP treatment-induced extramedullary hematopoiesis in splenectomized mice,(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian erythropoiesis can be divided into two distinct types, primitive and definitive, in which new cells are derived from the yolk sac and hematopoietic stem cells, respectively. Primitive erythropoiesis occurs within a restricted period during embryogenesis. Primitive erythrocytes remain nucleated, and their hemoglobins are different from(More)
The anti-inflammatory effect of propolis was compared with that of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and L-N(G)-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, using carrageenin-induced mouse paw edema. When administered 10 min prior to carrageenin injection, propolis (1 : 1000, 1 : 100, p.o.), diclofenac (12.5, 50(More)