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The mouse Rad51 gene is a mammalian homologue of the Escherichia coli recA and yeast RAD51 genes, both of which are involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair. To elucidate the physiological role of RAD51 protein, the gene was targeted in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mice heterozygous for the Rad51 null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring(More)
Stress-induced downregulation of spermatogenesis remains poorly understood. This study examined the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a carbon monoxide-generating inducible enzyme, in modulation of spermatogenesis. Rats were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), a stressor causing oligozoospermia, and HO-1-induction was monitored by following HO(More)
The aims of this study were to (i) determine the types of avian beta-defensin genes (AvbetaD) expressed in the hen oviduct and (ii) to examine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in vivo on their expression in the vagina. Birds were i.v. treated with LPS (1 mg/kg of BW), and subsequently the oviducts were analyzed 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after(More)
Over the course of pregnancy, the human uterus undergoes a 500- to 1,000-fold increase in volume and a 24-fold increase in weight. The uterine smooth muscle layer or myometrium is remodeled, and both cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia are evident. The origin of the new smooth muscle cells, however, is unclear. They may arise from existing smooth muscle cells,(More)
We report a new approach for assessing human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) by measuring BPA in urine after enzymatic deglucuronidation. This method involves addition of (13)C(12)-labeled BPA, enzymatic deconjugation, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide. The product of the derivatization is separated by gas(More)
Innate mucosal immune responses, including recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns through Toll-like receptors, play an important role in preventing infection in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Damaged cells release nucleotides, including ATP and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-glucose), during inflammation and mechanical stress. We show(More)
The analysis of co-culture system using osteoblast and bone marrow indicated that the mineralized osteoblast decreased osteoclast formation. This finding was an incentive to better investigate the relation of osteoblast development and osteoclastogenesis. The expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF/RANKL) mRNA and protein dramatically(More)
Calcium signaling plays important roles in mammalian fertilization, such as the calcium wave in egg and the acrosome reaction (AR) in sperm. The calcium wave is accompanied by a transient increase of cytosolic calcium, which is mediated by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) induced calcium release (IICR). During AR, it is commonly recognized that influx of(More)
The disposition of candesartan cilexetil (CAS 145040-37-5, TCV-116) was studied after oral administration of 14C-labeled drug to rats and dogs. Candesartan cilexetil was absorbed from the small intestine and hydrolyzed completely to the pharmacologically active metabolite M-I during absorption process. In the plasma of these animals, an appreciable amount(More)
Mining gene-expression-profiling data identified a novel gene that is specifically expressed in preimplantation embryos. Hmgpi, a putative chromosomal protein with two high-mobility-group boxes, is zygotically transcribed during zygotic genome activation, but is not transcribed postimplantation. The Hmgpi-encoded protein (HMGPI), first detected at the(More)