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Most available information on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contacts in cells of higher eukaryotes concerns proteins implicated in the regulation of Ca(2+) entry. However, growing evidence suggests that such contacts play more general roles in cell physiology, pointing to the existence of additionally ubiquitously expressed ER-PM tethers.(More)
Presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels provide calcium for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We show here that a green fluorescent protein-tagged alpha(1) subunit of the Caenorhabditis elegans CaV2 channel, UNC-2, is localized to presynaptic active zones of sensory and motor neurons. Synaptic localization of CaV2 requires the alpha(2)delta subunit UNC-36 and(More)
Growing evidence suggests that close appositions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes, including appositions with the plasma membrane (PM), mediate exchange of lipids between these bilayers. The mechanisms of such exchange, which allows lipid transfer independently of vesicular transport, remain poorly understood. The presence of a(More)
BACKGROUND The left and right AWC olfactory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans differ in their functions and in their expression of chemosensory receptor genes; in each animal, one AWC randomly takes on one identity, designated AWCOFF, and the contralateral AWC becomes AWCON. Signaling between AWC neurons induces left-right asymmetry through a gap junction(More)
Although memory deficits have been clearly documented in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, the physiological basis of this dysfunction is poorly understood. We focused on Tat, a viral protein released from HIV-1-infected cells and investigated its effect on spatial learning in adult mice. An intracerebroventricular(More)
Tight glycemic control in individuals with diabetes mellitus is essential to prevent or delay its complications. Present treatments to reduce hyperglycemia mainly target the ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel of pancreatic beta cells to increase insulin secretion. These current approaches are often associated with the side effect of hypoglycemia. Here we(More)
The close apposition between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) plays important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis, signaling, and lipid metabolism. The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts; tricalbins in yeast) are ER-anchored proteins that mediate the tethering of the ER to the PM and are thought to mediate lipid transfer between the two(More)
While studies of the adaptor SH3BP2 have implicated a role in receptor-mediated signaling in mast cells and lymphocytes, they have failed to identify its function or explain why SH3BP2 missense mutations cause bone loss and inflammation in patients with cherubism. We demonstrate that Sh3bp2 "cherubism" mice exhibit trabecular bone loss, TNF-alpha-dependent(More)
An attempt was made to classify herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolates into subtypes on the basis of the combination of the gain or loss of specific cleavage sites of HSV-1 genomes with each of three restriction endonucleases (Bam HI, Kpn I, and Sal I). According to the criteria we used for the determination of HSV-1 subtypes, 93 strains of HSV-1 that(More)
Acute metabolic changes in plasma membrane (PM) lipids, such as those mediating signalling reactions, are rapidly compensated by homeostatic responses whose molecular basis is poorly understood. Here we show that the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that function as PtdIns(4,5)P2- and Ca(2+)-regulated tethers to the PM,(More)