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Most available information on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contacts in cells of higher eukaryotes concerns proteins implicated in the regulation of Ca(2+) entry. However, growing evidence suggests that such contacts play more general roles in cell physiology, pointing to the existence of additionally ubiquitously expressed ER-PM tethers.(More)
Presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels provide calcium for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We show here that a green fluorescent protein-tagged alpha(1) subunit of the Caenorhabditis elegans CaV2 channel, UNC-2, is localized to presynaptic active zones of sensory and motor neurons. Synaptic localization of CaV2 requires the alpha(2)delta subunit UNC-36 and(More)
An attempt was made to classify herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolates into subtypes on the basis of the combination of the gain or loss of specific cleavage sites of HSV-1 genomes with each of three restriction endonucleases (Bam HI, Kpn I, and Sal I). According to the criteria we used for the determination of HSV-1 subtypes, 93 strains of HSV-1 that(More)
Growing evidence suggests that close appositions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes, including appositions with the plasma membrane (PM), mediate exchange of lipids between these bilayers. The mechanisms of such exchange, which allows lipid transfer independently of vesicular transport, remain poorly understood. The presence of a(More)
Renal histology in 163 Japanese children, aged 3 to 15, with proteinuria and/or haematuria showed that 11 had membranous nephropathy (M.N) and the rest had various other renal diseases. Hepatitis-B-virus surface antigen (HBsAg) was identified, by a reversed passive haemagglutination method, in the serum of all the patients with M.N. but in only 4.6% of the(More)
BACKGROUND The left and right AWC olfactory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans differ in their functions and in their expression of chemosensory receptor genes; in each animal, one AWC randomly takes on one identity, designated AWCOFF, and the contralateral AWC becomes AWCON. Signaling between AWC neurons induces left-right asymmetry through a gap junction(More)
Although memory deficits have been clearly documented in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, the physiological basis of this dysfunction is poorly understood. We focused on Tat, a viral protein released from HIV-1-infected cells and investigated its effect on spatial learning in adult mice. An intracerebroventricular(More)
Acute metabolic changes in plasma membrane (PM) lipids, such as those mediating signalling reactions, are rapidly compensated by homeostatic responses whose molecular basis is poorly understood. Here we show that the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that function as PtdIns(4,5)P2- and Ca(2+)-regulated tethers to the PM,(More)
VAP (VAPA and VAPB) is an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein that helps generate tethers between the ER and other membranes through which lipids are exchanged across adjacent bilayers. Here, we report that by regulating PI4P levels on endosomes, VAP affects WASH-dependent actin nucleation on these organelles and the(More)
Two outbreaks of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection occurred in three newborns at each of two hospitals, and two of the infants in each case died of disseminated HSV-1 infection. Restriction endonuclease profiles of HSV-1 DNAs isolated from the three in each instance were essentially identical, indicating that they were epidemiologically related.(More)