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Stems and branches of angiosperm trees form tension wood (TW) when exposed to a gravitational stimulus. One of the main characteristics of TW, which distinguishes it from normal wood, is the formation of fibers with a thick inner gelatinous cell wall layer mainly composed of crystalline cellulose. Hence TW is enriched in cellulose, and deficient in lignin(More)
We have developed genomic tools to allow the genus Populus (aspens and cottonwoods) to be exploited as a full-featured model for investigating fundamental aspects of tree biology. We have undertaken large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing programs and created Populus microarrays with significant gene coverage. One of the important aspects of(More)
Suspension-cultured poplar (Populus alba) cells produce two distinct endo-1,4-beta-glucanases, one of which is released in the extracellular culture medium and the other localized in their walls. Two cDNA clones, PopCel1 and PopCel2, isolated from a poplar cDNA library, encode the extracellular and the wall-bound endo-1, 4-beta-glucanases, respectively,(More)
A genetic transformation procedure for Chamaecyparis obtusa was developed after co-cultivation of embryogenic tissues with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58/pMP90, which harbours the sgfp (synthetic green fluorescent protein) visual reporter and nptII (neomycin phoshotransferase II) selectable marker genes. The highest transformation frequency(More)
A wall-bound endo-1, 4-beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) was obtained from a preparation of the cell walls of suspension-cultured poplar cells and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and gel-filtration chromatography. The molecular mass was estimated to be 47 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 48 kDa by gel filtration on Superdex 200 pg. The(More)
In response to environmental variation, angiosperm trees bend their stems by forming tension wood, which consists of a cellulose-rich G (gelatinous)-layer in the walls of fiber cells and generates abnormal tensile stress in the secondary xylem. We produced transgenic poplar plants overexpressing several endoglycanases to reduce each specific polysaccharide(More)
Sucrose (Suc) synthase (SuSy) is believed to function in channeling UDP-Glc from Suc to various beta-glucan synthases. We produced transgenic poplars (Populus alba) overexpressing a mutant form (S11E) of mung bean (Vigna radiata) SuSy, which appeared in part in the microsomal membranes of the stems. Expression of SuSy in these membranes enhanced the(More)
We performed biosafety assessments of transgenic poplars prior to field trials. Constitutive expression of the Aspergillus aculeatus xyloglucanase in Populus alba increased the cellulose content and specific gravity of its stem, the leaves of which were visibly greener, thicker, and smaller than those of the wild-type plant. Although the young transgenic(More)
A genetic transformation procedure for Cryptomeria japonica was developed after co-cultivation of embryogenic tissues with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58/pMP90, which harbours the visual reporter gene sgfp and two selectable marker genes, hpt and nptII. We were able to generate eight and three independent transgenic lines per gram of(More)
Poplar calli transcribed two cellulase (endo-1,4-beta-glucanase) genes, PopCel1 and PopCel2, whose mRNAs were differentially located in the growing leaves of poplar during cell wall synthesis. Histochemical and RT-PCR analyses of promoter-GUS fusion gene activities in transgenic poplar demonstrated that PopCel1 promoter-derived GUS activity was localized in(More)