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We have measured depth profiles of extracellular pH (pHECR) and PO2 (PtO2) as well as the kinetics of changes of pHECR in the isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal rat using pH and PO2 microelectrodes that entered from the ventral surface. When the preparation was superfused with control mock cerebrospinal fluid (Control mock CSF; pH =(More)
Two putative respiratory rhythm generators (RRGs), the para-facial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), have been identified in the neonatal rodent brainstem. To elucidate their functional roles during the neonatal period, we evaluated developmental changes of these RRGs by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye. Optical(More)
We have extracellularly recorded single neuron activity in the ventral medulla of the isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal rat (37 preparations) in order to test their sensitivity to changes in CO2/H+. Search for neuronal activity was performed when the preparation was superfused with control mock CSF (equilibrated with 2% CO2, 90% O2(More)
We developed a dual oscillator model to facilitate the understanding of dynamic interactions between the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) neurons in the respiratory rhythm generation. Both neuronal groups were modeled as groups of 81 interconnected pacemaker neurons; the bursting cell model described by Butera and(More)
The influence of extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]ECF and [Mg2+]ECF, respectively) on central respiratory control was analyzed using the isolated brainstem-spinal cord of the neonatal rat. Central respiratory activity was recorded from the C4 ventral roots. The depth profile of [Ca2+]ECF below the ventral medullary surface was measured with(More)
Spontaneous breathing occurs transiently in spinalized animals suggesting that the cervical spinal cord generates respiratory rhythm. We recorded optical signals from isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations of neonatal rats using a voltage-sensitive dye, and visualized respiratory-related activity by processing the optical data with a correlation(More)
We visualized the spatiotemporal activity of respiratory-related neurons in the frog using the isolated brainstem spinal cord preparation. We recorded optical signals from the ventral surface of the medulla using a voltage-sensitive dye, and calculated cross-correlations with the integrated respiratory activity of the trigeminal nerve. Lung burst-related(More)
BACKGROUND The patient population receiving long-term oxygen therapy has increased with the rising morbidity of COPD. Although high-dose oxygen induces pulmonary edema and interstitial fibrosis, potential lung injury caused by long-term exposure to low-dose oxygen has not been fully analyzed. This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term(More)
The sino-atrial node (SAN) is the natural pacemaker of the heart. Mechanisms of the leading pacemaker site generation and dynamic pacemaker shifts in the SAN have been so far studied with an electrophysiological technique, but the detailed spatial distribution of action potential characteristics in the SAN has not been analyzed due to the limited number of(More)
To examine the role of GABA in the respiratory rhythm and pattern generation in neonatal mice, we analyzed the function of the respiratory control system of 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67)-deficient neonatal mice. In these mutant (GAD67-/-) mice, GABA levels in the brainstem were reduced to about 30% of those in wild-type (GAD67+/+)(More)