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The anatomical structure of central respiratory chemoreceptors in the superficial ventral medulla of rats was studied by using hypercapnia-induced c-fos labeling to identify cells directly stimulated by extracellular pH or PCO(2). The distribution of c-fos-positive cells was found to be predominantly perivascular to surface vessels. In the superficial(More)
Two putative respiratory rhythm generators (RRGs), the para-facial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), have been identified in the neonatal rodent brainstem. To elucidate their functional roles during the neonatal period, we evaluated developmental changes of these RRGs by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye. Optical(More)
We developed a dual oscillator model to facilitate the understanding of dynamic interactions between the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) and the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) neurons in the respiratory rhythm generation. Both neuronal groups were modeled as groups of 81 interconnected pacemaker neurons; the bursting cell model described by Butera and(More)
Spontaneous breathing occurs transiently in spinalized animals suggesting that the cervical spinal cord generates respiratory rhythm. We recorded optical signals from isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations of neonatal rats using a voltage-sensitive dye, and visualized respiratory-related activity by processing the optical data with a correlation(More)
We visualized the spatiotemporal activity of respiratory-related neurons in the frog using the isolated brainstem spinal cord preparation. We recorded optical signals from the ventral surface of the medulla using a voltage-sensitive dye, and calculated cross-correlations with the integrated respiratory activity of the trigeminal nerve. Lung burst-related(More)
The sino-atrial node (SAN) is the natural pacemaker of the heart. Mechanisms of the leading pacemaker site generation and dynamic pacemaker shifts in the SAN have been so far studied with an electrophysiological technique, but the detailed spatial distribution of action potential characteristics in the SAN has not been analyzed due to the limited number of(More)
The characteristics of GABAergic neurons involved in respiratory control have not been fully understood because identification of GABAergic neurons has so far been difficult in living tissues. In the present in vitro study, we succeeded in analysing the electrophysiological as well as morphological characteristics of GABAergic neurons in the pre-Bötzinger(More)
Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the(More)
BACKGROUND Anisotropic conduction properties may provide a substrate for reentrant arrhythmias. We investigated the age-dependent changes of structural and functional anisotropy in isolated right atria from infant (1 to 2 months), young (6 to 12 months), and old (6 to 10 years) dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS The histology of the mapped atrial tissues (a small(More)
Neuromuscular blocking agents suppress central respiratory activity through their inhibitory effects on preinspiratory neurons and the synaptic drive from preinspiratory neurons to inspiratory neurons. Central CO2-chemosensitive areas, which partly consist of CO2-excited neurons, in the rostral ventrolateral medulla are thought to provide tonic drive to the(More)