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Muscular dystrophy with myositis (mdm) is a recessive mouse mutation that is caused by a small deletion in the giant elastic muscle protein titin. Homozygous mdm/mdm mice develop a progressive muscular dystrophy, leading to death at approximately 2 months of age. We surveyed the transcriptomes of skeletal muscles from 24 day old homozygous mdm/mdm and +/+(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific calpain, calpain 3 (also known as p94). However, the precise mechanism by which p94 functions in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. Here, using p94 knockin mice (termed(More)
Calpain, an intracellular Ca²⁺-dependent cysteine protease, is known to play a role in a wide range of metabolic pathways through limited proteolysis of its substrates. However, only a limited number of these substrates are currently known, with the exact mechanism of substrate recognition and cleavage by calpain still largely unknown. While previous(More)
Titin is a molecular spring that determines the passive stiffness of muscle cells. Changes in titin's stiffness occur in various myopathies, but whether these are a cause or an effect of the disease is unknown. We studied a novel mouse model in which titin's stiffness was slightly increased by deleting nine immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains from titin's(More)
During pathophysiological muscle wasting, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), has been proposed to trigger muscle protein degradation via ubiquitination. Here, we characterized skeletal muscles from wild-type (WT) and MuRF1 knockout (KO) mice under amino acid (AA) deprivation as a model for physiological protein(More)
p94 (also called calpain 3) is the skeletal muscle-specific calpain and is considered to be a "modulator protease" in various cellular processes. Analysis of p94 at the protein level is an urgent issue because the loss of p94 protease activity causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. In this study, we enzymatically characterized one alternatively(More)
p94/calpain 3 is a skeletal muscle-specific Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine protease (calpain), and genetic loss of p94 protease activity causes muscular dystrophy (calpainopathy). In addition, a small in-frame deletion in the N2A region of connectin/titin that impairs p94-connectin interaction causes a severe muscular dystrophy (mdm) in mice. Since p94 via its(More)
p94/calpain 3 is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the Ca(2+)-regulated cytosolic cysteine protease family, the calpains. Defective p94 protease activity originating from gene mutations causes a muscular dystrophy called calpainopathy, indicating the indispensability of p94 for muscle survival. Because of the existence of the p94-specific regions IS1 and(More)
Calpain is an intracellular Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.17; Clan CA, family C02) discovered in 1964. It was also called CANP (Ca2+-activated neutral protease) as well as CASF, CDP, KAF, etc. until 1990. Calpains are found in almost all eukaryotes and a few bacteria, but not in archaebacteria. Calpains have a limited proteolytic activity, and(More)
Calpain is an intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.17; Clan CA, family C02). Recent expansion of sequence data across the species definitively shows that calpain has been present throughout evolution; calpains are found in almost all eukaryotes and some bacteria, but not in archaebacteria. Fifteen genes within the human genome encode(More)