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Triton-extracted models of Paramecium were reactivated to swim in solutions of adenosine triphosphate and magnesium ions. The cilia beat in the normal direction (toward the rear) when the calcium ion concentration was less than 10-(6)M, and they beat in the "reversed" direction (toward the front) when calcium ion concentration was raised above 10-(6)M.(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates many cellular functions, but its roles in the nervous system are still poorly understood. We found that a newly discovered insulin receptor isoform, DAF-2c, is translocated from the cell body to the synaptic region of the chemosensory neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans by a conditioning stimulus that(More)
"Pawn," a genic mutant of Paramecium aurelia, cannot swim backward as the wild type can upon proper stimulation. In contrast, after membrane disruption by Triton X-100, the adenosine triphosphate-magnesium reactivated models of Pawns swim backward in the presence of calcium as wild-type models do. Thus, the mutant phenotype is due to an impairment in the(More)
Alternative splicing generates protein diversity essential for neuronal properties. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this process and its relevance to physiological and behavioural functions are poorly understood. To address these issues, we focused on a cassette exon of the Caenorhabditis elegans insulin receptor gene daf-2, whose proper variant(More)
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