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During the development of the vertebrate nervous system, up to 50 percent or more of many types of neurons normally die soon after they form synaptic connections with their target cells. This massive cell death is thought to reflect the failure of these neurons to obtain adequate amounts of specific neurotrophic factors that are produced by the target cells(More)
There is increasing evidence that programmed cell death (PCD) depends on a novel family of intracellular cysteine proteases, called caspases, that includes the Ced-3 protease in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE)-like proteases in mammals. Some developing cells, including lens epithelial cells,(More)
During development, control of proliferation of neuronal precursor cells plays a crucial role in determining the number of neurons. Proliferation is driven by mitogens, but how it is terminated remains a mystery. In this study, we examined the role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the control of proliferation of cerebellar granule cell precursors(More)
We previously reported that CD44-positive cells were candidates for astrocyte precursor cells in the developing cerebellum, because cells expressing high levels of CD44 selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) gave rise only to astrocytes in vitro. However, whether CD44 is a specific cell marker for cerebellar astrocyte precursor cells in vivo(More)
We have studied the survival requirements of developing lens epithelial cells to test the hypothesis that most cells are programmed to kill themselves unless they are continuously signaled by other cells not to do so. The lens cells survived for weeks in both explant cultures and high-density dissociated cell cultures in the absence of other cells or added(More)
Caspases play a critical role in the cell death machinery in various cell types. Here we investigated the involvement of caspases in the delayed neuronal death after transient global forebrain ischaemia in the gerbil. Intrahippocampal injection of benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-CH2-dichlorobenzene (zD), an irreversible inhibitor of caspases, saved hippocampal CA1(More)
We have previously reported the production of endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, by porcine cerebral microvessel endothelia and suggested its important role in the regulation of local blood flow within the brain. In our present study, radioimmunoassay with anti-porcine endothelin antiserum revealed that endothelin, produced by cerebral(More)
We recently proposed that most mammalian cells constitutively express all of the proteins required to undergo programmed cell death (PCD) and undergo PCD unless continuously signaled by other cells not to. Although some cells have been shown to work this way, the vast majority of cell types remain to be tested. Here we tested purified fibroblasts isolated(More)
We draw the following tentative conclusions from our studies on programmed cell death (PCD): (i) the amount of normal cell death in mammalian development is still underestimated; (ii) most mammalian cells constitutively express the proteins required to undergo PCD; (iii) the death programme operates by default when a mammalian cell is deprived of signals(More)
Physiological roles of the transsulfuration pathway have been recognized by its contribution to the synthesis of cytoprotective cysteine metabolites, such as glutathione, taurine/hypotaurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), whereas its roles in protecting against methionine toxicity remained to be clarified. This study aimed at revealing these roles by(More)