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Coinfections of bacteria and influenza are a major cause of excessive mortality during influenza epidemics. However, the mechanism of the synergy between influenza virus and bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, mice were inoculated with influenza virus, followed 2 days later by inoculation with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The kinetics of viral(More)
We established a mouse model in which fatal pneumonia was induced by pneumococcal superinfection following influenza virus infection in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected mice. In this mouse model, influenza virus infection caused a significant increase in inflammatory cells, cytokines and severe tissue damage in the lungs of these P. aeruginosa(More)
Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against yeast and molds. We investigated the in-vitro activity of voriconazole compared with that of other antifungal agents against 50 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp., measured by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) reference method described in the(More)
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We studied the susceptibility to azithromycin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 using a killing assay. PAO1 cells at the exponential growth phase were resistant to azithromycin. In contrast, PAO1 cells at the stationary growth phase were(More)
We investigated the role of inflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection mimicking diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), and determined the effects of clarithromycin therapy on the production of these cytokines. The concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha(More)
The features of chronic airway diseases, including chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis, include chronic bacterial infection and airway obstruction by mucus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens in chronic lung infection, and quorum-sensing systems contribute to the pathogenesis of this(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the differences in the clinical features of bacterial pneumonia patients between patients co-infected with influenza virus or not co-infected. METHODS Fifteen adult patients with bacterial pneumonia (7 men and 8 women) who also tested positive for influenza virus antigen were compared with those with bacterial pneumonia alone(More)
To clarify the discrepancy between increasing resistance and conservative clinical effects of macrolides on macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, the authors evaluated the effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of macrolides on pneumolysin. In vitro, S. pneumoniae was incubated with 1, 2 and 4 microg.mL(-1) of clarithromycin (CLR) and(More)
The recommended treatments for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infectious disease are combination regimens of clarithromycin (CLR) or azithromycin with ethambutol and rifamycin. However, these chemotherapy regimens are sometimes unsuccessful. Recently developed antimicrobial agents, such as newer fluoroquinolones (FQs) containing C-8 methoxy quinolone(More)
BACKGROUND S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. P-lactam antibiotics were very effective against S. pneumoniae, however resistance to this class of antibiotic has become an increasing problem. OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical differences between penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant pneumococcal pneumonia. (More)