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Bile acids play an essential role in the solubilization and absorption of dietary fat and lipid-soluble vitamins. Bile acids also modulate the transcription of various genes for enzymes and transport proteins for their own and cholesterol homeostasis through binding to nuclear receptors. Here we report a novel category of bile acid receptor, a membrane-type(More)
G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (Gpbar1/M-Bar) is a novel G protein-coupled receptor for bile acid. Tissue distribution and cell-type specificity of Gpbar1 mRNA suggest a potential role for the receptor in the endocrine system; however, the precise physiological role of Gpbar1 still remains to be elucidated. To investigate the role of Gpbar1 in vivo,(More)
A new series of quinazolinone derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as nonimidazole H 3 receptor inverse agonists. 2-Methyl-3-(4-[[3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)propyl]oxy]phenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-4(3 H)-quinazolinone ( 1) was identified as a promising derivative for further evaluation following optimization of key parameters. Compound 1 has potent H 3 inverse(More)
Chemerin is a novel peptide that was identified as a natural ligand for ChemR23. As it has been reported to be involved in the regulation of immune responses and adipogenesis, chemerin may have a variety of physiological functions. Chemerin is synthesized as a precursor (prochemerin) and is proteolytically activated and inactivated in sequential steps,(More)
Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are located on the presynaptic membranes and cell soma of histamine neurons, where they negatively regulate the synthesis and release of histamine. In addition, H3Rs are also located on nonhistaminergic neurons, acting as heteroreceptors to regulate the releases of other amines such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.(More)
A series of structurally constrained derivatives of the potent H 3 inverse agonist 1 was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as histamine H 3 receptor inverse agonists. As a result, the N-cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yloxy group as in 2f was identified as an optimal surrogate structure for the flexible 1-pyrrolidinopropoxy group of 1. Subsequent optimization of(More)
An improved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous analysis of histamine (HA) and tele-methylhistamine (tele-MHA) levels in mouse and rat brain. The method consists of a solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent HPLC with postcolumn derivatization of the amines with o-phthalaldehyde. The recovery rates of HA(More)
The elongase of long chain fatty acids family 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme for the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long chain fatty acids. ELOVL6 is abundantly expressed in lipogenic tissues such as liver, and its mRNA expression is up-regulated in obese model animals. ELOVL6 deficient mice are protected from high-fat-diet-induced(More)
We established a convenient assay method for measuring elongation of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) using a Unifilter-96 GF/C plate. The Unifilter GF/C plate preferentially interacts with hydrophobic end products of ELOVLs (i.e., long chain fatty acid), with minimal malonyl-CoA (C2 unit donor for fatty acid elongation) interaction. This new method(More)
Elongase of very-long-chain fatty acid (Elovl) 6 is a rate-limiting enzyme that is responsible for the elongation of long-chain fatty acids such as palmitoic acid (C16). Elovl6 is abundantly expressed in liver and adipose tissue, and the expression levels in these tissues are up-regulated in obese animals. Furthermore, Elovl6-deficient mice display improved(More)