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Trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits all histone deacetylases (HDACs) of both class I and II, whereas trapoxin (TPX) cannot inhibit HDAC6, a cytoplasmic member of class II HDACs. We took advantage of this differential sensitivity of HDAC6 to TSA and TPX to identify its substrates. Using this approach, alpha-tubulin was identified as an HDAC6 substrate. HDAC6(More)
Genetic knockout of the transcriptional corepressor CtBP in mouse embryo fibroblasts upregulates several genes involved in apoptosis. We predicted, therefore, that a propensity toward apoptosis might be regulated through changes in cellular CtBP. To identify pathways involved in this regulation, we screened a mouse embryo cDNA library with an E1A-CtBP(More)
During embryonic lymphatic development, Prox1 homeobox transcription factor is expressed in a subset of venous blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) in which COUP-TFII orphan nuclear receptor is highly expressed. Prox1 induces differentiation of BECs into lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by inducing the expression of various LEC markers including(More)
To assess whether Smad signaling affects skin development, we generated transgenic mice in which a Smad antagonist, Smad7, was induced in keratinocytes, including epidermal stem cells. Smad7 transgene induction perturbed hair follicle morphogenesis and differentiation, but accelerated sebaceous gland morphogenesis. Further analysis revealed that independent(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, and is regulated by signaling pathways mediated by cytokines, including transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). Embryonic endothelial cells also undergo differentiation into mesenchymal cells during heart valve formation and aortic(More)
Most cardiac diseases caused by inflammation are associated with fibrosis in the heart. Fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of fibroblasts and excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which results in the distorted organ architecture and function. Recent studies revealed that cardiac fibroblasts are heterogeneous with multiple origins.(More)
During embryonic lymphatic development, a homeobox transcription factor Prox1 plays important roles in sprouting and migration of a subpopulation of blood vessel endothelial cells (BECs) toward VEGF-C-expressing cells. However, effects of Prox1 on endothelial cellular behavior remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that Prox1, via induction of integrin(More)
Lymphatic vessels (LVs) play critical roles in the maintenance of fluid homeostasis and in pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis. Although mutations in ALK1, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family, have been linked to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, a human vascular disease,(More)
Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. While signals mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β have been implicated in EndMT, the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of TGF-β signals on the EndMT of mouse pancreatic(More)
Prox1 plays pivotal roles during embryonic lymphatic development and maintenance of adult lymphatic systems by modulating the expression of various lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3). However, the molecular mechanisms by which Prox1 transactivates its target genes remain largely unknown.(More)