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1. Systematic exploration throughout the deep cerebellar nuclei and white matter disclosed that the region from which saccadic eye movements (saccades) were evoked with weak currents (less than 10 microA) was confined to the fastigial nucleus and the adjacent white matter. 2. When an electrode for stimulation was advanced in the cerebellum, saccades were(More)
PURPOSE Recently, indocyanine green (ICG) has been used to visualize the internal limiting membrane during vitrectomy. After intraocular administration, ICG accumulates at the optic disc. In this study, the effects of ICG on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were examined. METHODS In vitro, rat RGCs were purified by a two-step immunopanning procedure, briefly(More)
Extracellular field recordings were made in CA1 in the hippocampal explant cultures in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Schaffer collaterals were stimulated with 1-s trains of 60 Hz pulses every 10 min. Seizures were reliably elicited with progressive lengthening over 1-2 h. D-APV, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, stereoselectively(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying cell fate determination from common progenitors in the vertebrate CNS remain elusive. We previously reported that the OTX2 homeoprotein regulates retinal photoreceptor cell fate determination. While Otx2 transactivation is a pivotal process for photoreceptor cell fate determination, its transactivation mechanism in the(More)
This paper describes augmented reality visualization for the guidance of breast-conservative cancer surgery using ultrasonic images acquired in the operating room just before surgical resection. By combining an optical three-dimensional (3-D) position sensor, the position and orientation of each ultrasonic cross section are precisely measured to reconstruct(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the time course of changes in optic nerve head (ONH) circulation after an acute increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), by using the laser speckle method, and to evaluate the effects of a calcium antagonist, the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, or sympathetic nerve amputation on the response in ONH circulation after an(More)
PURPOSE To develop a simple, noninvasive method of determining blood velocity and flow through human retinal vessels (RVs), by using the laser speckle method and validating the results by bidirectional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). METHOD The square blur rate (SBR), a quantitative blurring index of the laser speckle pattern that parallels the velocity(More)
PURPOSE This paper describes the development and evaluation of a parallel prototype robot for vitreoretinal surgery where physiological hand tremor limits performance. METHODS The manipulator was specifically designed to meet requirements such as size, precision, and sterilization; this has six-degree-of-freedom parallel architecture and provides(More)
PURPOSE Robotics may improve vitreoretinal surgery by steadying hand motion, thereby reducing negative outcomes. This study aimed to develop a microsurgical robot for vitreoretinal surgery and to perform clinical procedures using robot-assisted interventions. METHODS A microsurgical system for vitreoretinal surgery was designed to meet specific(More)
—This paper describes augmented reality visualization for the guidance of breast-conservative cancer surgery using ultrasonic images acquired in the operating room just before surgical resection. By combining an optical three-dimensional (3-D) position sensor, the position and orientation of each ultrasonic cross section are precisely measured to(More)