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The beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 is considered to be an attractive target for inhibition of macrophage-tropic (CCR5-using or R5) HIV-1 replication because individuals having a nonfunctional receptor (a homozygous 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 coding region) are apparently normal but resistant to infection with R5 HIV-1. In this study, we found that TAK-779, a(More)
Action potential initiation and propagation requires clustered Na(+) (voltage-gated Na(+) [Nav]) channels at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. In addition to ion channels, these domains are characterized by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs; neurofascin-186 [NF-186] and neuron glia-related CAM [NrCAM]), cytoskeletal proteins (ankyrinG and betaIV(More)
Male F-344 rats were exposed by inhalation to gaseous formaldehyde at 0.3, 2, and 15 ppm 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 28 months. Nasal tumors were macroscopically evident in the 15 ppm group from the 14th month and 8 of 32 rats bore such tumors at the 24th month. Histopathological examination revealed both squamous cell papillomas and carcinomas. No nasal(More)
To elucidate the ligand-receptor relationship of the natriuretic peptide system, which comprises at least three endogenous ligands, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and three receptors, the ANP-A receptor or guanylate cyclase-A (GC-A), the ANP-B receptor or guanylate cyclase-B (GC-B),(More)
Leptin is a circulating hormone that is expressed abundantly and specifically in the adipose tissue. It is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, as well as the neuroendocrine and reproductive systems. Here, we demonstrate production of leptin by nonadipose tissue, namely, placental trophoblasts and amnion cells from uteri of pregnant women. We(More)
High densities of ion channels at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier are required for initiation, propagation, and modulation of action potentials in axons. The organization of these membrane domains depends on a specialized cytoskeleton consisting of two submembranous cytoskeletal and scaffolding proteins, ankyrinG (ankG) and betaIV(More)
To examine whether a capacitative Ca2+ entry pathway is present in skeletal muscle, thin muscle fibre bundles were isolated from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult mice, and isometric tension and fura-2 signals were simultaneously measured. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the muscle fibres was successfully depleted of Ca2+ by repetitive(More)
AnkyrinG (ankG) is highly enriched in neurons at axon initial segments (AISs) where it clusters Na(+) and K(+) channels and maintains neuronal polarity. How ankG becomes concentrated at the AIS is unknown. Here, we show that as neurons break symmetry, they assemble a distal axonal submembranous cytoskeleton, comprised of ankyrinB (ankB), αII-spectrin, and(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor originally isolated from the stomach, occurs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and may play a role in energy homeostasis. Synthetic GHSs have activated the hypothalamic arcuate neurons containing neuropeptide Y (NPY), suggesting the involvement of NPY in some of ghrelin actions.(More)