Learn More
In the adult mammalian CNS, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) stabilize neuronal structure and restrict compensatory sprouting following injury. The Nogo receptor family members NgR1 and NgR2 bind to MAIs and have been implicated in neuronal inhibition. We found that NgR1 and NgR3 bind with high affinity to(More)
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth(More)
Traumatic injury to the CNS results in increased expression and deposition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) that are inhibitory to axonal regeneration. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been implicated as a major mediator of these changes, but the mechanisms through which TGF-β regulates CSPG expression are not known. Using lentiviral(More)
Semantic studies on diagrammatic notations (Barwise & Etchemendy, 1990; Shimojima, 1995; Stenning & Lemon, 2001) have revealed that the "non-deductive," "emergent," or "perceptual" effects of diagrams (Chandrasekaran, Kurup, Banerjee, Josephson, & Winkler, 2004; Kulpa, 2003; Larkin & Simon, 1987; Lindsay, 1988) are all rooted in the exploitation of spatial(More)
OBJECTIVE Therapeutic anticoagulation is widely used, but limitations in efficacy and bleeding complications cause an ongoing search for new agents. However, with new agents developed it seems to be an inherent problem that increased efficiency is accompanied by an increase in bleeding complications. We investigate whether targeting of anticoagulants to(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the CNS after injury and participate in the inhibition of axon regeneration mainly through their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. In the present study, we have identified a new way to alleviate the inhibition of axonal regeneration by CSPG GAGs. We have successfully decreased the amount of(More)
Clinically used GPIIb/IIIa blockers are ligand mimetics, and thereby their binding can induce conformational changes of the platelet integrin GPIIb/IIIa. Since the reversibility of these conformational changes may be an important determinant of potential adverse effects of GPIIb/IIIa blockers, we produced a new monoclonal antibody (anti-LIBS-mAb), and by(More)
Human-Computer interaction may be correlated with social interaction and cultural norms. We examined how Japanese and Amer-ican people respond to a computer as a social entity and how cultural dierences between Japanese and American behavioral norms in reciprocal social interaction play a role in this response. Reciprocity is the most powerful and universal(More)
This paper explores the influence of communicative interaction on the form of graphical representations. A referential communication task is described which involves exclusively graphical dialogue. In this task subjects communicate about pieces of music by drawing. The drawings produced fall into two basic types: Abstract and Figurative. Three hypotheses(More)