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The stiffness (flexural rigidity) of live sperm flagella, Triton-demembranated flagella (axonemes), trypsin-digested axonemes, and doublet microtubules of the axonemes in echinoderms was determined from the relationship between their deformation when a stream of medium was applied and the viscous resistance of the medium acting on the flagellum. The(More)
A large quantity of paraffin oil, sucrose solution, or sea water was injected into the eggs of the heart urchin Clypeaster japonicus shortly before the onset of the first cleavage. The injected oil became spherical, pushing the mitotic apparatus aside. The sucrose solution mixed with the protoplasm and caused disintegration of the mitotic apparatus, and the(More)
A series of periodic increases in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) occurred upon fertilization in golden hamster eggs. The spatial distribution of the Ca2+ transients was investigated in single zona-free, aequorin-injected eggs, inseminated by single sperm. A supersensitive TV camera system for recording Ca2+-aequorin luminescence enabled(More)
Eggs of Xenopus laevis were preloaded with aequorin and the spatial and temporal pattern of free calcium release in the egg cortex on artificial activation was determined by the aequorin luminescence emitted from the thin cortical layer of naturally opaque eggs. The aequorin luminescence was detected with a photonic microscope system consisting of a light(More)
Electron microscope preparations were made of specimens of Actinosphaerium nucleofilum fixed in glutaraldehyde before, during, and after exposure to high pressures (4,000 to 8,000 psi). A study of this material showed that, although other organelles were relatively stable, the microtubular elements of the axopodia and cytosome became unstable under(More)
Changes in the intracellular free calcium levels in the cortical region of cleaving Xenopus eggs were examined using semi-synthetic aequorin. We detected periodic oscillations in the free calcium levels accompanying the cleavage cycle as early as the first cleavage onward. The calcium levels began to increase at early interphase and were maximal during(More)
Intracellular release of Ca2+ by microinjection of Ca2+ was analyzed by measuring the luminescence of aequorin loaded in eggs of the medaka (Oryzias latipes). Microinjection of Ca2+ into the cortical cytoplasm induced propagative waves of cytoplasmic Ca2+ release and exocytosis of cortical alveoli initiated at the injection point. The Ca2+ wave was(More)