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Previous research suggests that water exercise (WE) improves bodily functions of the frail elderly, but there is as yet no research on the effect of once weekly WE. This study aims to compare the effects of once and twice weekly WE on bodily functions of frail elderly requiring nursing care in six months. The design is a prospective cohort study.(More)
The production of pectinase, the major virulence determinant of soft-rot Erwinia species, is controlled by many regulatory factors. We focused on the major regulatory proteins, KdgR, CRP, Pir, and PecS, characterized mainly in E. chrysanthemi, and tested for their presence and function in the control of pectate lyase (Pel) and polygalacturonase (Peh)(More)
Whole-body water immersion (WI) has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the installation of the backstroke start device reduces 15-m time. Thirteen college swimmers participated in this study. The aerial start and underwater motions were recorded with two digital video cameras. The center of mass (CM) of the swimmer, angular displacements and velocities of the shoulder, hip and knee(More)
Water immersion alters the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response in humans. The effect of water immersion on executive function and ANS responses related to executive function tasks was unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether water immersion alters ANS response during executive tasks. Fourteen healthy participants performed(More)
This study investigated factors that determine the velocity of the center of mass (CM) and flight distance from a track start to devise effective technical and physical training methods. Nine male and 5 female competitive swimmers participated in this study. Kinematics and ground reaction forces of the front and back legs were recorded using a video camera(More)
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