Yasuaki Aratani

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Studies by various investigators have indicated that elevated levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine are strongly associated with the occurrence of occlusive vascular diseases. With the eventual aim of determining whether or not elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations are directly causative of cardiovascular diseases, we have generated mice that are(More)
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) are identified in the circulation of approximately 80% of patients with pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis and systemic small vessel vasculitis, such as microscopic polyangiitis and Wegener granulomatosis. The most common antigen target for ANCAs is myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E, a constituent of several lipoproteins, is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein receptor, and this interaction is important for maintaining cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis. We have used a gene replacement strategy to generate mice that express the human apoE3 isoform in place of the mouse protein. The levels of apoE mRNA(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride ion to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is used for microbial killing by phagocytic cells. Despite the important role of MPO in host defense, however, MPO deficiency is relatively common in humans, and most of these individuals are in good health. To define the in vivo(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is located within neutrophils capable of producing hypochlorous acid, is active in vitro against bacteria and fungi. However, MPO-deficient persons are usually healthy. To define the in vivo contribution of MPO to early host defense against pulmonary infections, MPO-deficient and control mice were intranasally infected with(More)
Acrolein is a representative carcinogenic aldehyde found ubiquitously in the environment and formed endogenously through oxidation reactions, such as lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase-catalyzed amino acid oxidation. It shows facile reactivity toward DNA to form an exocyclic DNA adduct. To verify the formation of acrolein-derived DNA adduct under(More)
Synthesis and secretion of basement membrane proteins by 3T3-L1 adipocytes were studied by metabolic labeling of the cells with [35S]methionine. Enhanced synthesis and secretion of many polypeptides of high molecular weight were observed by stimulating the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with dexamethasone, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, and insulin.(More)
Peroxynitrite is responsible for nitration in vivo, whereas myeloperoxidase can also catalyze protein nitration in the presence of high NO2(-) levels. Recent reports of myeloperoxidase-mediated enzyme inactivation or lipid peroxidation have suggested a role of myeloperoxidase in various pathological conditions. To clarify the role of myeloperoxidase in(More)
To study the involvement of DNA topoisomerases in recombination in mammalian cells, we used gene transfer assays to examine the effects of DNA topoisomerase inhibitors on nonhomologous (illegitimate) and homologous recombination. The assays were performed by transfecting adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient (APRT-) CHO cells with plasmids carrying(More)
DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta) has been implicated in base excision repair in mammalian cells. However, the physiological significance of this enzyme in the body remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mice carrying a targeted disruption of the Polbeta gene showed growth retardation and died of a respiratory failure immediately after the birth.(More)