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An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) by(More)
Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000(More)
Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 has been circulating in the Middle East since the 1990s. For uncertain reasons, H9N2 was not detected in Egyptian farms until the end of 2010. Circulation of H9N2 viruses in Egyptian poultry in the presence of the enzootic highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype adds a huge risk factor to the Egyptian poultry industry. In this(More)
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