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An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt affected approximately 40,000 cattle and water buffaloes and killed more than 4,600 animals during February-March 2012. To investigate the etiology of the 2012 outbreak, specimens were collected from six governorates and analyzed using universal primers to amplify the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) by(More)
Clade 2.2 highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses have been in continuous circulation in Egyptian poultry since 2006. Their persistence caused significant genetic drift that led to the reclassification of these viruses into subclades 2.2.1 and 2.2.1.1. Here, we conducted full-genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses of 45 H5N1 isolated during 2006-2013 through(More)
Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 has been circulating in the Middle East since the 1990s. For uncertain reasons, H9N2 was not detected in Egyptian farms until the end of 2010. Circulation of H9N2 viruses in Egyptian poultry in the presence of the enzootic highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype adds a huge risk factor to the Egyptian poultry industry. In this(More)
Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000(More)
BACKGROUND Avian influenza H5N1 viruses have been enzootic in Egyptian poultry since 2006. Avian influenza H9N2 viruses which have been circulating in Egyptian poultry since 2011 showed high replication rates in embryonated chicken eggs and mammalian cells. METHODS To investigate which gene segment was responsible for increasing replication, we(More)
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms provides a possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Here, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2(More)
We describe a novel spike pseudoparticle neutralisation assay (ppNT) for seroepidemiological studies on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV) and apply this assay together with conventional microneutralisation (MN) tests to investigate 1,343 human and 625 animal sera. The sera were collected in Egypt as a region adjacent to areas where MERS(More)
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February(More)
Avian influenza A H5N1 and H9N2 viruses have been extensively circulating in various avian species and frequently infect mammals, including humans. The synchronous circulation of both viruses in Egypt provides an opportunity for possible genetic assortment, posing a probable threat to global public health. To assess the potential risk of the IAV(More)
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