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Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased incidence of noninsulin (type-2)-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although mechanisms by which iAs induces diabetes have not been identified, the clinical symptoms of the disease indicate that iAs or its metabolites interfere with insulin-stimulated signal transduction pathway or(More)
Calpains are a family of non-lysosomal cysteine proteases. Recent studies have identified a member of the calpain family of proteases, calpain 10, as a putative diabetes-susceptibility gene that may be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of calpain activity has been shown to reduce insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated(More)
Previous studies have shown that flavonoids inhibit glucose uptake in cultured cells. In this report, we show that the grapefruit flavanone naringenin inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Naringenin acts by inhibiting the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a key regulator of insulin-induced(More)
In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin activates three major signaling cascades, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, the Cbl pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Although PI3K and Cbl mediate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by promoting the translocation of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) to the plasma(More)
Certain flavonoids inhibit glucose uptake in cultured cells. In this report, we show that the grapefruit flava-none naringenin inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in proliferating and growth-arrested MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our findings indicate that naringenin inhibits the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a key regulator of(More)
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits 3T3-L1 adipogenesis when present during the first 72 h of differentiation. In this report, we investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in the anti-adipogenic effects of genistein. We found that genistein blocked the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta(More)
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane. The studies presented here show that inhibition of myosin II activity impairs GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake but not GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We(More)
Two pathways are initiated upon 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation: the reentry of cells into the cell cycle and the initiation of a cascade of transcriptional events that "prime" the cell for differentiation. The "priming" event involves the synthesis of members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. However, the(More)
Myosin II (MyoII) is required for insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that insulin signaling stimulates phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of MyoIIA via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The experiments described here delineate upstream regulators of(More)
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake requires the activation of several signaling pathways to mediate the translocation and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane. Our previous studies demonstrated that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is a myosin II-dependent process in adipocytes. The experiments described in this report are the first to show a dual(More)