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OBJECTIVE To examine whether the insulin receptor (INSR) gene contributes to genetic susceptibility to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Academic endocrinology clinic. PATIENT(S) Ninety-nine women with PCOS as defined by the National Institutes of Health consensus and polycystic ovaries on ultrasonography, and(More)
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest female endocrinopathies affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The disorder, characterized by chronic anovulation and signs of hyperandrogenism, results from a complex interaction between genetic predisposing factors and environmental triggers. We have studied 85 Caucasian PCOS patients and(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) frequently occur together within families and in the same individual. The co-occurrence of T1D and AITD in the same patient is one of the variants of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 [APS3 variant (APS3v)]. Epidemiological data point to a strong genetic influence on the shared(More)
FOXP3 is a key gene in the development of regulatory T cells (Treg). FOXP3 expression commits naïve T cells to become Treg cells. Indeed, mutations in the FOXP3 gene cause severe systemic autoimmune diseases in humans and in mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that the FOXP3 gene may be associated with thyroid autoimmunity which is among the typical autoimmune(More)
The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), comprising Graves disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), develop as a result of a complex interaction between predisposing genes and environmental triggers. Previously, we identified six loci that showed evidence for linkage with AITD in a data set of 56 multiplex families. The goals of the present study were(More)
Graves' disease (GD) is associated with HLA-DR3 (DRB1*03) in Caucasians, but the exact amino-acid sequence in the DR beta1 chain conferring susceptibility to GD is unknown. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the critical sequence among the HLA-DRB1 amino-acid residues occupying the peptide-binding pocket, which conferred susceptibility to GD.(More)
Graves' disease (GD) is seen in apparently sporadic and familial forms. At least two immune regulatory genes are associated with GD, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). The aim of our study was to examine the contributions of HLA and CTLA-4 to the familial clustering of GD by analyzing them for association with(More)
The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), encompassing Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), occur in genetically susceptible individuals. In order to identify the AITD susceptibility genes, we have studied DNA markers in the regions of 8 candidate genes: (1) the HLA region, (2) the TSH receptor, (3) thyroid peroxidase, (4) thyroglobulin, (5)(More)
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in which multiple genetic factors are suspected to play an important role. Until now, only a few minor risk factors for these diseases have been identified. Susceptibility seems to be stronger in women, pointing toward a possible role for genes related to sex(More)
One of the hallmarks of the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) is the production of high titers of autoantibodies against thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase that often precedes the development of clinical disease. A high percentage of family members of patients with AITDs have significant titers of thyroid antibodies (TAbs), suggesting a genetic(More)