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We investigate the electronic transport properties of gold point contacts with superconducting aluminum leads. The modifications induced by the proximity effect in the quasiparticle density of states at the contact region are measured by tunnel spectroscopy. The theory of transport through multiple Andreev reflections is extended to incorporate these(More)
We report the observation of the universal distribution of transparencies, predicted by Schep and Bauer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3015 (1997)] for dirty sharp interfaces, in uniform Nb/AlO(x)/Nb junctions with high specific conductance (10(8) ohm(-1) cm(-2)). Experiments used the BCS density of states in superconducting niobium for transparency distribution(More)
We have derived a general formula describing current noise in multimode ballistic channels connecting source and drain electrodes with Fermi electron gas. In particular ͑at eVӷk B T), the expression describes the nonequilibrium ''shot'' noise, which may be suppressed by both Fermi correlations and space charge screening. The general formula has been applied(More)
We study the adjustment and use of the Max-sum algorithm for solving Asymmetric Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (ADCOPs). First, we formalize asymmetric factor-graphs and apply the different versions of Max-sum to them. Apparently , in contrast to local search algorithms, most Max-sum versions perform similarly when solving symmetric and(More)
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